The EU, as a major timber importer, has implemented the European Union Timber Regulation as means to halt the import of illegally sourced wood products. It will force businesses to check more carefully where their materials are coming from. For companies in the forestry sector, publications making high estimates can be regarded as potentially threatening for their reputation and their market perspective, including the competitiveness of wood in comparison to other materials. As Valery Roshchupkin, Head of the Federal Forestry Agency of the Russian Federation, confirmed, illegal logging would be of special importance for Russia as the G8 President and for the following G8 Summit, also held in Saint Petersburg. [56], The Australian Illegal Logging Prohibition Regulation applies to importers into Australia of "regulated timber products" such as sawn timber, wood panels, pulp, paper products, and wood furniture. The Union of Concerned Scientists is actively monitoring the coronavirus pandemic and its implications for scientific integrity. The East Asia Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (EA FLEG) Ministerial Conference took place in Bali in September 2001. EC/99/03, WWF International (2002) The Timber Footprint of the G8 and China, The Peruvian Environmental Law Society (2003), Learn how and when to remove this template message, transmigration projects undertaken by the Indonesian government, Forest Law Enforcement and Governance Program, Federal Forestry Agency of the Russian Federation, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, "Dawn timber-laundering raids cast doubt on 'sustainable' Brazilian wood", Wood laundering brings illegal Amazon timber to Europe — report, "Protecting the Environment with Intelligence – EIA International", "Tree sleuths are using DNA tests and machine vision to crack timber crimes", "People Fixing the World: Is your wood from a legal source? In environmental terms illegal logging is associated with deforestation, climate change and a loss of biodiversity. Sign up or text "SCIENCE" to 662266. [53], The requirements under the new Amendments are two-fold. Protect the legal forestry industry in the United States. Section 3. In Liberia, the programme helped forest communities to negotiate fair contracts with logging companies to stop illegal deforestation, and a new land rights act was signed into law … If effectively implemented, the Lacey Act will: Text "SCIENCE" to 662266 or sign up online. In 2008, WWF worked with a coalition of businesses and organizations to pass groundbreaking amendments to the Lacey Act that prohibit illegal timber and timber products from entering the US market. Governments tend to underestimate the situation, given that high estimates of illegal logging may cause embarrassment as these suggest ineffective enforcement of legislation or, even worse, bribery and corruption. 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge MA 02138, USA 2001; Ong et al. In 2008, the acquittal of a proprietor for a timber firm, Adelin Lis, alleged for illegal logging further galvanised public opinion and drew criticisms at the Indonesian political institution. Despite the economic importance of trade in timber and forest products, major international timber consumer countries, such as the EU, have no legal means to halt the import of illegally sourced forest products,[2] because the identification of illegally logged or traded timber is technically difficult. This is evident in places such as large protected swathes of northern Nan Province that were formerly covered with virgin forest and that have been deforested even while having national park status. A preparatory conference was held in Moscow in June 2005. Learn more. Royal Institute of International Affairs; Duncan Brack, Gavin Hayman and Kevin Gray (2002), Tony Waters, The Persistence of Subsistence Agriculture, p. 3. A preparatory conference was held in Moscow in June 2005. This could include harvesting timber from protected areas, felling protected species, or exceeding logging quotas. Prevention of Illegal Logging Practices). These agro-industrial companies often do not comply with the basic legal regulations by inappropriately employing cost effective yet environmentally inefficient deforestation methods such as forest fires to clear the land for agricultural purposes. [13], In 2020, the United Kingdom announced it will ban companies from selling items that use raw materials sourced in a way which breaches local laws to protect forests and other natural environments in the country where they are produced. On December 28, 2019, Chinese legislators revised the country’s Forest Law to ban “purchase, process or transport” of illegal logs. [5][6][7][8][9] Possible actions to restrict imports cannot meet with WTO regulations of non-discrimination. In the US, the most important policy related to illegal logging is the Lacey Act, passed more than 100 years ago to limit illegal wildlife trade. Therefore, a legal basis for normative acts against timber imports or other products manufactured out of illegal wood is missing. The 1999 Forestry Law states that it is essential for companies to be endorsed by authorities in respective regions with an IPK permit, a timber harvesting permit, for legal approval of their deforestation activities. US electricity infrastructure is aging, inadequate, and vulnerable. [1] These acts are often referred to as "wood laundering"[2]. It has a devastating impact on some of the world's most valuable remaining forests, and on the people who live in them and rely on the resources that forests provide. The event was co-hosted by the World Bank and the Government of Indonesia. It is difficult for central government officials to visit areas still controlled by former Pol Pot forces. WHEREAS, Martial Law has been declared throughout the Philippines pursuant to Proclamation No. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, this forest cover was at around 70% 1. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Under Australian law, illegal logging means ‘the harvesting of timber in contravention of the laws of the country where the timber is harvested’. Help promote sustainable management of tropical forests.lo. 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge MA 02138, USA, Infographic: Wildfires and Climate Change, Building Equitable, Clean, and Climate-Safe Infrastructure, How Soil Erosion Threatens Food and Farms. In response to growing concerns over illegal logging and advice from TRAFFIC[10] and other organisations,[11] on May 22, 2008 the U.S. amended the Lacey Act, when the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 expanded its protection to a broader range of plants and plant products (Section 8204. Over 25% of the country is covered by forest, and over 90% of this forest is owned by the government. Available figures and estimates must be treated with caution. Scientific methods to pinpoint the geographic origin of timber are currently under development. There are many cases in which the military carries out illegal logging without knowledge from the government. Illegal logging in the Amazon While laws exist which authorize logging in designated areas, illegal logging is widespread in Brazil and several Amazon countries. On the other hand, environmental NGOs publish alarming figures to raise awareness and to emphasise the need for stricter conservation measures. On December 28, 2019, Chinese legislators revised the country’s Forest Law to ban “purchase, process or transport” of illegal logs. Declaring a moratorium on the cutting and harvesting of timber in the natural and residual forests and creating the anti- illegal logging task force. Thereafter, these farmers will move on to occupy another plot of land and continually practice their slash-and-burn technique. (617) 547-5552. Illegal logging and related trade occurs when timber is harvested, transported, processed, bought or sold in violation of national or sub-national laws. Illegality may also occur during transport, such as illegal processing and export (through fraudulent declaration to customs); the avoidance of taxes and other charges, and fraudulent certification. Take action to prioritize science-based election reforms. [26] In Kachin State, which has some of the largest expanses of relatively untouched forest, illegal logging accounts for up to half of the deforestation. ITFMP Report No. In 2014, the FAU-EU-FLEGT Programme[50] of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations published the study The Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) process in Central and West Africa: from theory to practice[51] to document and foster strategic reflection in partner countries already engaged in negotiating a VPA - or those who will be entering into such negotiations - by providing examples of good practices. Illegal logging could be defined as breaking of laws on cutting, processing and transporting timber or wood products. Democracy and science can be powerful partners for the public good—and both are under attack. [25], Lack of regulations has led to unbridled and destructive logging that has caused environmental damage such as soil erosion, river contamination, and increased flooding. An estimated 9.8 … There is a high demand for timber from Burma's neighbours–notably Thailand and China–who have depleted their forests much more than Burma (plunder). Reduce illegal logging and its costly impacts. The primary means of implementing the Plan is through Voluntary Partnership Agreements with timber producing countries. Illegal logging and timber trade is the world’s most lucrative form of transnational crime after counterfeiting, drug smuggling and human trafficking. [54], This Plant and Plant Product Declaration must contain (besides other information) the Genus, Species, and Country of Harvest of every plant found in commercial shipments of certain products, a list of applicable products (along with other requirements and guidance) can be found on the USDA APHIS website. It agreed to the Saint Petersburg Declaration on Forest Law Enforcement and Governance in Europe and North Asia. It prohibits the placing on the EU market for the first time of illegally harvested timber and products derived from such timber; It requires EU traders who place timber products on the EU market for the first time to exercise 'due diligence'; Once on the market, the timber and timber products may be sold on and/or transformed before they reach the final consumer. The EU has 2 key legal acts to fight illegal logging: the forest law enforcement, governance and trade regulation the EU timber regulation. Tell Uber & Lyft to be part of a clean transportation future. Tell President Biden: It is time for bold action on nuclear weapons. We need to grow a resilient food system from the ground up. About Illegal Logging Although the international community has yet to agree upon the definition of "illegal logging," it is commonly understood as the harvest, transport, purchase or sale of timber or wood products in violation of national laws. [23] The lack of accountability to deforestation with pertinence to transmigration projects undertaken by the Indonesian government illustrates minimal supporting evidence to testify to considerations for forestry sustainability in their development projects. Korindo is known to be using illegal timber from the last rainforests of Indonesia. [21] This contributing social factor to deforestation reinforces the challenges faced by forestry sustainability in developing countries such as Indonesia. This unfair competition affects those European companies, especially the small and medium-sized companies that are behaving responsibly and ready to play by fair rules. A major problem is that illegal logging is still classified in Myanmar as an environmental matter, and not as a criminal act, making it difficult for the Forest Department to bring a lawsuit against the offenders. In May 2004, the Russian Federation announced its intention to host the ENA FLEG process, supported by the World Bank. The Act commenced on 28 November 2012 and establishes Australia’s illegal logging framework. They’re the most dangerous invention the world has ever seen. However, long-term trends in illegal logging and trade have shown that this was temporary, and illegal logging continues. The Declaration includes an indicative list of actions, intended to serve as a general framework for possible actions to be undertaken by governments as well as civil society. Illegal logging is the harvesting, processing, transporting, buying or selling of timber in contravention of national and international laws. Text STOP to opt out. What is illegal logging? Illegal logging is the harvesting of timber in contravention of the laws and regulations of the country of harvest. The majority of illegal deforestation is done by the military and powerful sub-contractors. [11], It is estimated that illegal logging on public land alone causes losses in assets and revenue in excess of US$10 billion annually. [28] Illegal commercial timber interests take advantage of weak law enforcement to benefit from illegal cutting. The Europe and North Asia Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (ENA FLEG) Ministerial Conference was held in Saint Petersburg, Russia on 22–25 November 2005. These laws derive from both federal and state sources. First, the Lacey Act now makes it illegal to import into the United States plants that have been harvested contrary to any applicable Federal Law, State Law, Indian Tribal Law, or Foreign Law. By continuing, you accept our use of cookies. A study by a Brazilian commission showed that 80% of all logging in the Amazon was illegal during the late 90s 2. Conservation efforts Government policies. It involves cutting trees without permits or removing trees from protected areas, and other activities such as avoiding taxes and laundering illegal logs. However, for many countries, NGOs are the only source of information apart from state institutions, which probably clearly underestimate the true figures. It also outlines that businesses must undertake ‘due diligence’ on certain regulated processes. Executive Order No.26 Declaring an Interdepartmental Convergence Initiative for a National Greening Program The Regulation starts on 30 November 2014 and requires that before import of these products or processing of raw logs, due diligence is undertaken to minimise the risk that the timber products or raw logs were illegally logged or incorporate illegally logged timber. These illegal activities undermine responsible forest management, encourage corruption and tax evasion and reduce the income of the producer countries, further limiting the resources producer countries can invest in sustainable development. [22], The Indonesian government grapples with the management of deforestation with sustainable urban development as rural-urban migration necessitates the expansion of cities. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Illegal Logging: Law Enforcement, Livelihoods and the Timber Trade. Help protect workers from dangerous heat. The energy choices we make today could make or break our ability to fight climate change. This includes a wide range of illegal activities, such as: logging of protected species; logging in protected areas; logging with fake … The meeting drew together ministers and stakeholders from Africa, Europe and North America to consider how partnerships between producers, consumers, donors, civil society and the private sector could address illegal forest exploitation and associated trade in Africa. Chatham House is monitoring forest governance and legality in 19 countries to assess the effectiveness of government and private sector efforts to tackle illegal logging and trade. [15] In Latvia, the situation is comparable; anecdotal evidence points towards 25%[16] of logging being illegal. Record breaking logging of last rainforests, "Indonesia's Sinar Mas Accused of Illegal Land Clearing", "Rates and Causes of Deforestation in Indonesia: Towards a Resolution of the Ambiguities", "Tackling Political Corruption to Combat Illegal Logging", "Thailand's green cover in slow decline as 40% goal remains out of reach", "Timber - Species we work with at TRAFFIC", UK BANS BIG BUSINESSES FROM SELLING PRODUCTS LINKED TO ILLEGAL DEFORESTATION, "The Stolen Forests: Inside the covert war on illegal logging", "U.S. Department of Agriculture Lacey Act Guidance", "Department of Agriculture Illegal Logging", "Australia: Illegal Logging Prohibition Regulation position paper welcomed by the timber industry", UAV Drones Becoming Valuable Tools in Fighting Illegal Deforestation in Global Conservation Projects, Satellite Technology Aims to Combat Illegal Logging in Real Time, "Timber trafficking: Illegal Logging in Indonesia, South East Asia and International Consumption of Illegally Sourced Timber", Illegal Logging and Related Timber Trade - Dimensions, Drivers, Impacts and Responses, International Union of Forest Research Organizations, FAO-EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Programme, European Commission page on illegal logging, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Illegal_logging&oldid=1000988444, Articles with dead external links from November 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles needing additional references from February 2013, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. It is a global problem with significant economic, social and environmental impact. Furthermore, the illegal trade of forest resources undermines international security, and is frequently associated with corruption, money laundering, organized crime, human rights abuses and, in some cases, violent conflict. These good practices were identified and recorded following interviews with the main stakeholders in the eight VPA countries in West and Central Africa, the European Forest Institute's (EFI) EU FLEGT Facility[52] and the European Commission. This further augments scepticism in the Indonesian government's credibility in efficiently and responsibly managing their urban development projects and forestry conservation efforts. Illegal logging occurs in the Philippines and intensifies flood damage in some areas. [57], Harvest, transportation, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws, For further details on illegal logging, see: Duncan Brack and Gavin Hayman (2001) Intergovernmental Actions on Illegal Logging. [3][4] Terms and conditions. The election is over, but the crises are all still here. The Conference brought together nearly 150 participants from 20 countries, representing government, international organizations, NGOs, and the private sector. Illegal logging is the harvesting of wood that is in violation of national regulations. In 2016, the FAO-EU FLEGT Programme published an additional study, Traceability: a management tool for business and governments, providing examples of good practices in the region's traceability systems, which help prevent illegal logging by tracking timber from its forest of origin throughout its journey along the supply chain. Unfortunately, only a fifth of these forests are protected under environmental law 1. In the social landscape, small-scale subsistence farmers in rural areas, who received minimal education, employ a basic method of slash-and-burn to support their agricultural activities. The European Union Timber Regulation was adopted in 2010 and went into effect 3 March 2013. Section 9-13-10.1: Assistance of State Forestry Commission in control and suppression of wildfires by other state agencies: Section 9-13-11 In the forestry sector, cheap imports of illegal timber and forest products, together with the non-compliance of some economic players with basic social and environmental standards, destabilise international markets. The release of the Government's guidance coincides with the release of industry developed timber due diligence tools and information through the industry website of Timber Due Diligence. The AFLEG conference, the second regional forest law enforcement and governance meeting after East Asia, resulted in endorsement of a ministerial declaration and action plan as well as a variety of informal implementation initiatives. It has been called a "world's first" by Zac Goldsmith, minister of state for pacific and the environment.[49]. Definition of Terms. They must instead be arranged in bilateral agreements. It allows for undocumented and unauthorized deforestation in which allows for the exploitation of Cambodia's forests. Incredibly, since 2015, the forest area in the Philippines has been rising, mainly thanks to government initiatives and increased law enforcement 1. TRAFFIC,[10] the wildlife trade monitoring network, strives to monitor the illegal trade of timber and provide expertise in policy and legal reviews. In June 1977, President Ferdinand Marcos signed a law requiring the planting of one tree every month for five consecutive years by every citizen of the Philippines. Worth an estimated $51–$152 billion annually, the illegal timber industry simultaneously threatens the world’s forests and steals from local communities that rely on forests for food, health, and wealth. The law enforcement action led to BM Group’s removal from Russia’s federal list of priority investment projects, which allow a select group of firms to sidestep public auctions for logging rights. Other aspects in illegal logging that are not necessarily involved with the logging itself, but rather in the aspect of transactions in buying or selling illegally acquired lumber can also be considered to be illegal … Clean energy investments can help. Provide economic development opportunities. Can we prevent them from being used again? If a plant is found to have been harvested in violation of the laws of the country where it was harvested, that plant would be subject to seizure and forfeiture if imported into the U.S. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission, or from a protected area; the cutting down of protected species; or the extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits. A blog on science, politics, and activism. Our transportation system is outdated and broken—and it needs to change. 1. [18] Most of the methods adopted for deforestation in Indonesia are illegal for a multitude of reasons. [12] Although exact figures are difficult to calculate, given the illegal nature of the activity, decent estimates show that more than half of the logging that takes place globally is illegal, especially in open and vulnerable areas such as the Amazon Basin,[13] Central Africa, Southeast Asia, the Russian Federation.[14]. Corruption amongst local Indonesian officials fuels cynicism with regard to the governmental clampdown on illegal logging activities. Generally though, illegal logging can be considered a process consisting of the following steps: illegal activities pre-logging (getting permits), illegal … The corruption associated with illegal logging weakens the rule of law and fuels the cycle of transnational crime. A joint UK-Indonesian study of the timber industry in Indonesia in 1998 suggested that about 40% of throughput was illegal, with a value in excess of $365 million. Illegal logging and the associated trade of illegally sourced wood products is a clandestine industry that threatens forests and economies alike. Therefore, a legal basis for normative acts against timber imports or othe… Here's how. Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws.The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission, or from a protected area; the cutting down of protected species; or the extraction of timber in excess of agreed limits. Illegal logging is a global problem with significant negative economic, environmental and social impact. In social terms illegal logging can be linked to conflicts over land and resources, the disem… In South-East Asia FLEGT ) forest cover was at around 70 % 1 illegal commercial interests... Legal basis for normative acts against timber imports or other products manufactured out of illegal wood is coming from prepared. It attracts organised criminal groups and fosters widespread corruption plantations such as Indonesia biosphere reserve by the military and sub-contractors! 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Indonesia is believed to be using illegal timber trading March 2013 must undertake ‘ due diligence on! Taxes and laundering illegal logs host the ENA FLEG process, supported by the Bank! To forests, local communities and to emphasise the need for stricter conservation measures app! Forests, local communities and to emphasise the need for stricter conservation measures key countries in regions... Swamp forest in South-East Asia South-East Asia make today could make or break our ability to climate... The Plan is through Voluntary Partnership Agreements with timber producing countries, local communities to.

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