At a date which cannot be fixed Eusebius made the acquaintance of Pamphilus, the founder of the magnificent library which remained for several centuries the great glory of the Church of Cæsarea. (43) "In Praise of the Martyrs". A little curious about his own books? His relations, later on, with the Emperor Constantine point to the same conclusion. But if He who is is not the only one, but there was also a Son existing, how did He who is beget him who was existing? (11), The "Præparatio Ecclesiastica", (12), the "Demonstratio Ecclesiastica", and (13) Two Books of Objection and Defence, of which, from Photius's account, there seem to have been two separate editions. (38) A treatise against the Manichæans is perhaps implied by Epiphanius (Hær., lxvi, 21). and vol. 264-ca. Little is known about the life of Eusebius. (40) At the Vicennalia of Constantine. It must be remembered that Origen's own copy of the Hexapla was in the library of Pamphilus. Testimonies of the Ancients in Favor of Eusebius. A portion of this letter has been preserved in the Acts of the second Council of Nicæa, where it was cited to prove that Eusebius was a heretic. (16) Eusebius narrates, in his Life of Constantine (IV, 36, 37), how he was commissioned by the emperor to prepare fifty sumptuous copies of the Bible for use in the Churches of Constantinople. Copyright © 2020 by Kevin Knight. May not the confessor Antoninus be the same person as the priest of that name who, later on, with two companions interrupted the governor when he was on the point of sacrificing, and was beheaded? f Not to be confused with Eusebius of Nicomedia, St. Eusebius of Vercelli, or Pope St. Eusebius We believe in one only God, Father Almighty, Creator of things visible and invisible; and in the Lord Jesus Christ, for he is the Word of God, God of God, Light of Light, life of life, his only Son, the first- He also divided the Gospels into sections numbered continuously. A passage that seems to belong to such a commentary was discovered and published by Mai. That he knows very little about Tertullian or St. Cyprian is due, no doubt, to his scant knowledge of Latin; but in the case of a Greek writer, like Hippolytus, we can only suppose that his works somehow failed to make their way to the libraries of the East. (5) The Church History. (15) "On the Numerous Progeny of the Ancients". See if cause is not immediately given them again to attack and to misrepresent whatever they please. An epitome, very probably from the hand of Eusebius, of this work was discovered and published by Mai in 1825. Basil's words, Lightfoot thinks that in this treatise Eusebius dealt with the difficulty presented by the Patriarchs possessing more than one wife. The man is indeed very learned, although as regards shrewdness of mind and firmness of character, as well as accuracy in doctrine, he is deficient. We have already spoken of the profession of faith which he brought forward to vindicate his own orthodoxy, or perhaps in the hope that the council might adopt it. A curious literary problem arises out of the relations between the "Theophania" and the work "De Laudibus Constantini". Who baptized him he does not clearly show. One objection to this view may be noted. "Even Eusebius Pamphili, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, was at that time one of those who upheld the doctrines of Arius. (37) "On the Paschal Festival" (a mystical interpretation). In the remaining eight the testimonies of the prophets concerning Christ are treated of. Eusebius's "diction", as Photius said, "is never pleasant nor clear". Finally, he does not even mention the terrible fate which was inflicted by God upon Arius in the sight of all. It is printed in ordinary type in Swete's O. T. in Greek (vol. There are two distinct forms of this work, both drawn up by Eusebius. In 296 he saw for the first time the future Emperor Constantine, as he passed through Palestine in the company of Diocletian (Vit. Those who share in this heresy do not allow images, as the impious Severus did not, and Peter Cnapheus, and Philoxenus of Hierapolis, and all their followers, the many-headed yet headless hydra. (35) "Against Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra", and (36) "On the Theology of the Church", a refutation of Marcellus. So far as the martyrs are concerned, it is evidently complete, and the fate of the persecutors would not take long in the telling. ", VII, 8; and also (Lightfoot and Harnack think) by St. The book, in both forms, was intended for popular reading. The subject was most carefully investigated by Lightfoot in an article in "The Contemporary" (January, 1875, reprinted in "Essays on Supernatural Religion"), entitled "The Silence of Eusebius". ", Socrates, in the First Book of his Ecclesiastical History (chap. Lightfoot decides in favour of the priority of the first-named work. Eusebius of Caesarea is to be distinguished from his contemporary Eusebius of Nicomedia. It was published and translated in the "Journal of Sacred Literature" by Mr. H. B. Cowper (New Series, V, pp. Th. Imprimatur. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. II, p. 149). There was nothing original about his work except the use he made of Philostratus's Life of Apollonius of Tyana to institute a comparison between the Lord and Apollonius in favour of the latter. (Swete, vol. Testimonies of the Ancients Against Eusebius-----From the Epistle of Arius to Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia (in Theodoret's Eccles. We shall take Eusebius's writings in the order given in Harnack's "Altchrist. in "Select Library of Nic. He was a heretic, a supporter of Arius, who used his influence among the members of the family of Constantine the Great to further the Arian position as well as his personal esteem. (48) To the Church of Cæsarea after the Council of Nicæa. APA citation. Early in 309 Pamphilus and several of his disciples were beheaded. Perhaps he was ordained priest about this time. ", pp. And again, a little farther on, that there is also a certain essence, living and subsisting before the world, which ministers to the God and Father of the universe for the creation of things that are created. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York. Lightfoot rejects this view chiefly on the ground that "the Text of the codex in many respects differs too widely from the readings found in Eusebius". He was originally appointed bishop in the see of Berytus (Beirut) in Phoenicia. There is, of course, the question of priority. Ev. Only the first book is extant, in a translation by Rufinus. (39) At the Dedication of the Church in Tyre (see above). There are also a few fragments of the remaining books. (1) the following is prefixed to Ezechiel in the codex Marchalianus. Theodoritus, in his Interpretation of the Epistle of Paul to the Hebrews, speaking of the Arians, writes as follows: "If not even this is sufficient to persuade them, it at least behooves them to believe Eusebius of Palestine, whom they call the chief advocate of their own doctrines.". The volume to which this colophon was subjoined began with 1 Samuel and ended with Esther. Who could bear such things? Exegetical In 334 and 335 he took part in the campaign against St. Athanasius at the synods held in Cæsarea and Tyre respectively. And farther on: `Since the Son also is himself God, but not true God.' 340) is known as the “father of church history.” He was the first to write a “comprehensive” history of the early church. (19) (a) Interpretation of the ethnological terms in the Hebrew Scriptures; (b) Chronography of Ancient Judaea with the Inheritances of the Ten Tribes; (c) A plan of Jerusalem and the Temple; (d) on the Names of Places in the Holy Scripture. "Eusebius of Cæsarea." I, p. 231). According to Duchesne (Hist. The second part (11-18) seems to have been a separate oration joined on to the Tricennalia. The result was a "mischievous mixture of the Alexandrian version with the versions of Aquila and Theodotion" (Swete, "Introd. This view is widely accepted (cf. Mothers and Martyrdom: Familial Piety and the Model of the Maccabees in Eusebius of Caesarea’s Ecclesiastical History, James Corke-Webster 4. (Mart. The Catholic Encyclopedia. When, where, or how he escaped death or any kind of mutilation, we do not know. If this is admitted, "then", to quote Dr. Sanday, "I cannot but think that the theory of Kattenbusch and Harnack [viz. It had probably been deposited there by Origen himself. The following was transcribed from a copy of the Father Apollinarius the Coenobiarch, to which these words are subjoined: "It was transcribed from the editions of the Hexapla and was corrected from the Tetrapla of Origen himself which also had been corrected and furnished with scholia in his own handwriting, whence I, Eusebius, added the scholia, Pamphilus and Eusebius corrected. We may assume that, as soon as the persecution began to relax, Eusebius succeeded Pamphilus in the charge of the college and library. Historical c. Eusebius too, was imprisoned but managed to avoid his mentor's fate. Photius, in his 144th Epistle to Constantine. A man of noble birth, and wealthy, he sold his patrimony and gave the proceeds to the poor. The words in brackets are probably genuine though not given by Socrates and St. Athanasius]. The following summary of its contents is taken from Mr. Gifford's introduction to his translation of the "Præparatio": "The first three books discuss the threefold system of Pagan Theology, Mythical, Allegorical, and Political. This seems to have been the opening address delivered at the Council of Nicæa. (15) "On the Numerous Progeny of the Ancients". Extracts from the original are preserved. 2006. We give three specimens. One member of Pamphilus's household, Apphianus, had done the same a few years before; and another, Ædesius, after being tortured and sent to the mines, on obtaining his release provoked martyrdom at Alexandria by going before the governor and rebuking him. The first book of the Demonstratio chiefly deals with the temporary character of the Mosaic Law. Eusebius's "diction", as Photius said, "is never pleasant nor clear". Around 313, about the time of Constantine's Edict of Milan, Eusebius became bishop of the Palestinian city. This is the great merit of the Church History. So also, in writing to the bishop Euphration, he blasphemes most openly; his letter begins thus: `I return to my Lord all thanks'; and farther on: `For we do not say that the Son was with the Father, but that the Father was before the Son. Hierocles, who, as governor in Bithynia and in Egypt, was a cruel enemy of the Christians during the persecution, before the persecution had attacked them with the pen. But if thou thyself examine carefully his books, thou shalt see that he was none the less truly overcome by that deadly disease than he was by the Arian madness. An indignant bishop, who had been one of his fellow-prisoners and "lost an eye for the Truth", demanded at the Council of Tyre how "he came off scathless". The notices in the Church History bearing on the New Testament canon are so important that a word must be said about the rule followed by Eusebius in what he recorded and what he left unrecorded. Basil (On the Holy Spirit 29), where he says, "I draw attention to his [Eusebius's] words in discussing the difficulties started in connexion with ancient polygamy." (Swete, vol. This seems to have been the opening address delivered at the Council of Nicæa. From the Acts of the Seventh Oecumenical Council. Eloquent testimonies to the care bestowed by Pamphilus and Eusebius on the sacred text are found in Biblical manuscripts which have reproduced their colophons. According to this view it is natural to regard the introduction, "As we have received" etc., as autobiographical, and to infer that Eusebius had exercised the office of priesthood in the city of Cæsarea before he became its bishop, and had received his earliest religious instruction and the sacrament of Baptism there also. By 315 he was already a bishop, for he was present in that capacity at the dedication of a new basilica at Tyre, on which occasion he delivered a discourse given in full in the last book of the Church history. He had many enemies, yet the charge of cowardice was never seriously made — the best proof that it could not have been sustained. (3) On the Martyrs of Palestine. By a slip of the pen or the memory, Lightfoot (p. 309) makes Dorotheus a priest of the Church of Cæsarea. Therefore, the author of the Onomasticon is distinguished from the others by three epithets. He was also an ardent admirer of the excellences of the holy martyr Pamphilus, for which cause some say that he took from him the surname Pamphili. (10) The "Demonstratio Evangelica", in twenty books, of which the last ten, with the exception of a fragment of the fifteenth, are lost. The history of the preservation of the three letters, (45) to Alexander of Alexandria, (46) to Euphrasion, or Euphration, (47) to the Empress Constantia, is sufficiently curious. In his reply Eusebius confined himself to this one point. Lightfoot decides in favour of the priority of the first-named work. that the Eastern creeds were daughters of the early Roman creed, and this latter did not reach the East till about A.D. 272] breaks breaks down altogether. Cureton, p. 37). 337 A.D.: Asia Minor - Eusebius of Nicomedia baptizes Constantine, who dies on May 22nd in Nicomedia. This work was addressed to Constantine (Vit. Whether as in the case of the Old Testament, they worked on any definite critical principles is not known. The existence of the same work in two different forms raises a number of curious literary problems. At the opening of the Council of Nicæa Eusebius occupied the first seat on the right of the emperor, and delivered the inaugural address which was "couched in a strain of thanksgiving to Almighty God on his, the emperor's behalf" (Vit. He later became Bishop of Nicomedia before finally becoming Archbishop of Constantinople. Lightfoot rejects this view chiefly on the ground that "the Text of the codex in many respects differs too widely from the readings found in Eusebius". Pamphilus was certainly not idle in prison. It seems that he flourished in the time of Constantine the Great. The book, in both forms, was intended for popular reading. Concerning Eusebius's parentage we know absolutely nothing; but the fact that he escaped with a short term of imprisonment during the terrible Diocletian persecution, when his master Pamphilus and others of his companions suffered martyrdom, suggests that he belonged to a family of some influence and importance. Remy Lafort, Censor. Vol. Ruffin., I, ix), survives. Const., III, 11; Sozomen, Church History I.19). (10) The "Demonstratio Evangelica", in twenty books, of which the last ten, with the exception of a fragment of the fifteenth, are lost. c. There are two distinct forms of this work, both drawn up by Eusebius. Besides continuing his work of editing the Septuagint, he wrote, in collaboration with Eusebius, a Defence of Origen which was sent to the confessors in the mines — a wonderful gift from a man whose sides had been curried with iron combs, to men with their right eyes burned out and the sinews of their left legs cauterized. Book I. There are entire passages which are almost verbatim the same in both works. Biog." The passage just quoted shows that the date of Eusebius's birth is more than a merely curious question. (b) Others maintain that this creed was not the local creed of Cæsarea, but one drawn up by Eusebius in his own justification as embodying what he had always believed and taught. "The emperor upon hearing these things becomes very angry and orders that a synod be convoked in Phoenicia in the city of Tyre; he also gave orders that Eusebius and some others should act as judges: these persons moreover had leaned somewhat too far toward the vulgarity of the Arians. (37) "On the Paschal Festival" (a mystical interpretation). (31) Commentary on Hebrews. Here, with two notable exceptions, scholars seem to be agreed in favour of the longer form. It is a vital matter with writers of the school of Kattenbusch not to accept what seems the natural interpretation of Eusebius's words, viz., that the creed he read before the council was actually the one he had always used. If this was to be done, and new matter (i.e. But if any speaking in his defense say that he subscribed in the council, we may admit that that is true; but while with his lips he has respected the truth, in his heart he is far from it, as all his writings and epistles go to show. The longer is only extant in a Syriac version which was first edited and translated by Cureton in 1861. "Nor again", to quote Lightfoot, "can the special charges against his honour as a narrator be sustained. But, moreover, we know him to have been altogether lacking in such accurate knowledge. Wissenschaft" (vol. Lightfoot, art. At some time during the last twenty years of the third century he visited Antioch, where he made the acquaintance of the priest Dorotheus, and heard him expound the Scriptures (Church History VII.32). The "Contra Marcellum" was written after 336 to justify the action of the synod held at Constantinople when Marcellus was deposed; the "Theology" a year or two later. So far as the martyrs are concerned, it is evidently complete, and the fate of the persecutors would not take long in the telling. In Books X-XII Eusebius argues that the Greeks had borrowed from the older theology and philosophy of the Hebrews, dwelling especially on the supposed dependence of Plato upon Moses. Writings These things are found thus narrated by some; but he makes them to appear doubtful by certain things which he is seen to have written in his Ecclesiastical History. The notices in the Church History bearing on the New Testament canon are so important that a word must be said about the rule followed by Eusebius in what he recorded and what he left unrecorded. But that from the beginning he inwardly cherished the Arian doctrines, and that up to the end of his life he did not cease following them, many know, and it is easy to gather it from many sources; but that he shared also in the infirmity of Origen, namely, the error with regard to the common resurrection of us all, is to most persons unknown. We may assume that, as soon as the persecution began to relax, Eusebius succeeded Pamphilus in the charge of the college and library. He compares the parallel passages and argues that they are improved in the "De Laudibus Constantini". It is not extant. Then comes the question, why Eusebius abridged it and, finally, how the abridgment found its way into the Church History. His successor at the See of Caesarea, Acacius, wrote a Life of Eusebius, a work that has since been lost. By 315 he was already a bishop, for he was present in that capacity at the dedication of a new basilica at Tyre, on which occasion he delivered a discourse given in full in the last book of the Church history. Eusebius survived him long enough to write his Life and two treatises against Marcellus, but by the summer of 341 he was already dead, since it was his successor, Acacius, who assisted as Bishop of Cæsarea at a synod held at Antioch in the summer of that year. The "Præparatio" is a gigantic feat of erudition, and, according to Harnack (Chronologie, II, p. 120), was, like many of Eusebius's other works, actually composed during the stress of the persecution. ", XIII, 313-317). Ev. (40) At the Vicennalia of Constantine. (29) Commentary on St. Luke, of which what seem to be extracts are preserved. Inasmuch as this passage is contained in all our manuscripts, and there is sufficient evidence that other interpolations (though not this) were introduced into the text of Josephus long before his time (see Orig., c. The missing portions are in part supplied by extracts from the Catenæ. The following year Constantine died. The existence of the same work in two different forms raises a number of curious literary problems. One of the reasons which he gives for his change of view is that when he was preparing his first volume he used Socrates, who does not give the superscription which we have printed in brackets. (23 to 28) Commentaries on other books of Holy Scripture, of some of which what may be extracts are preserved. 5), calls Eusebius of Cæsarea the latter’s brother. In the remaining eight the testimonies of the prophets concerning Christ are treated of. I, p. 15; Gwatkin, "Studies of Arianism", p. 42, 2nd edition; McGiffert, "Prolog. They "believed (as did St. Jerome nearly a century afterwards) that Origen had succeeded in restoring the old Greek version to its primitive purity". From the Synodical Epistle of the Bishops of Egypt, met in the City of Alexandria, to All the Bishops of the Catholic Church (which Athanasius gives in his second apology against the Arians). The data from which they argue are the persons and events which Eusebius describes as belonging to "our own times". He also took part in a synod of Syrian bishops who decided that Arius should be restored to his former position, but on his side he was to obey his bishop and continually entreat peace and communion with him (Sozomen, Church History I.15). Constantia asked Eusebius to send her a certain likeness of Christ of which she had heard; his refusal was couched in terms which centuries afterwards were appealed to by the Iconoclasts. "Eusebius Pamphili, a devotee of the Arian heresy, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, a man zealous in the study of the holy Scriptures, and along with Pamphilus the martyr a most careful investigator of sacred literature, has published many books, among which are the following."10. 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