. Water deficits, which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries, may soon do the same in larger countries, such as China or India. household or individual selection based on measurement of nutritional status, assets, etc.COMMUN I TYBeneficiaries selected by insiders/potential gainers, i.e. TIME DIMENSION OF FOOD SECURITY INDICATORS 1. Under this definition, livelihood encompasses subsistence (self-consumed) production, natural resource utilization, noncash-based transactions such as bartering- , as well as cash-based and wage income. Estimated season’s productivity should be compared with long-term average productivity. Household Livelihood Security (HLS) has become CARE’s basic framework for program analysis, design, monitoring and evaluation. Trailing (Late) Indicators These occur after food access declined. There are four principal components of the household food system: the household itself and its productive resources (using principally its own labour and land), income earning component, market exchange component, and Institutional co-operation to mobilise social network and resources. They reflect the extent to which the well-being of particular households and communities have been affected. The assessment should determine a geographic area to be assessed. . In absence of baseline data human judgment is applied, and the judgment would require estimating the relative importance and contribution of the different potential sources of livelihoods (e.g., roles of livestock, cash crops, root crops, trade potential, traditional coping mechanism, etc.). There are nearly 60 million more undernourished people now than in 2014. T o t a l P r o d u c t i o n ( D i s t r i c t ) = Sğ ( a r e a f o r e a c h c r o p * i n d i v i d u a l c r o p p r o d u c t i v i t y ) . MEASURES PHYSICAL OUTPUTS AND ACHIEVEMENTS AT A GIVEN PROJECT PHASE. LIFT – Livelihood and Food Security Technical Assistance The Livelihood and Food Security Technical Assistance (LIFT) Project is an Associate Award under the FIELD-Support Leader with Associates (LWA) mechanism, managed by FHI 360. Food security means having, at all times, both physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet dietary needs for a productive and healthy life. These include review of pre-planting assessment reports, mid-season assessment reports, monthly and quarterly reports (where available), previous years’ assessment reports, rainfall and market data. Workshop Objectives Help participants to revisit concepts and measurement of vulnerability analysis in context of WFP/ partners’ priorities; Identify/ discuss the relevance the food system /food economies for specific operational areas; Describe coping strategies of population under stress conditions; Revisit key aspects of food security indicators and methods of measurement for targeting, monitoring and evaluation; Introduce criteria for targeting beneficiaries for WFP interventions; Introduce methods and instruments for needs assessment under different conditions; SESSION ONE Livelihood Security and Vulnerability: Concept and Measurement Issues Key Questions What are Food Security, nutritional security and livelihood security? Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Increases in price of grain; Unseasonable disappearance of essential foodstuff; Increase in unemployment among labourers & artisans; Unusual low levels of household food stock Significant accumulation of livestock by some households due to depressed prices caused by oversupply. For example: the urban poor, small or marginal farmers and rural landless; gender disaggregation; (3). For example, population figures obtained from Administration are not the same as that of MOA or relief agencies. The present definition of food security was coined in the 90s. The integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) is a tool to classify severity of food insecurity based on a range of livelihood needs. The Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC), also known as IPC scale, is a tool for improving food security analysis and decision-making. The assessment team, based on the sample fields, estimates productivity of crops. . Chamber's definition of Sustainable Livelihood Security (1988). If women farmers had the same access to productive resources as men, it could reduce the number of hungry people in the world by up to 17% due to increased crop yields. If this trend continues, the number of undernourished people will exceed 840 million by 2030. Designed in collaboration with local populations, our strategies are context-specific: micro-grant support for families recovering from conflict, seeds and tools for agricultural recovery, livestock and veterinary services where needed, small business assistance, and other programs that help families regain self-sufficiency. land, labour (both for farm production and off-farm income opportunities), household valuables, ownership of livestock that generates cash income as well as providing draught power for crop production, and crop yields and animal products to generate cash income or stored or processed for consumption COMPONENT 2: cash income earning opportunities: Off-farm employment cash-for-work, trading, handicrafts, farm labour, casual work, and other part time employment Farm income Transfer income COMPONENT 3: the exchange through markets Product markets: sale of livestock and livestock products or sale of crop Factor market: purchase of input purchase of capital goods investment COMPONENT 4: institutions that mediate flows of resources between households. It means that you or your family aren’t worried about paying for groceries, where your next meal might come from, or cutting back on food in order to pay the bills. Annex III: Generalised List ofPRIVATE RAPID FOOD SECURITY ASSESSMENT: PART I: TOPICAL OUTLINE FOR GROUP INTERVIEW: Village Location Population of the village: Total Number of people & households Clan: & Sub-clan Household Types (by economic criteria) male - female wealthy average poor Major Crops Grown and Trends (ten years) Access to Infrastructure health facilities religions school vocational " modern " markets prices: price tread in the past year sorghum + maize (Rice, Beans, Sugar, Onion, Tomato, Tea leaves, Cooking oil, gee) Prices of: Goats Sheep Camel Cow roads storage: types of - - Milk, Gee - Grain - Meat water sources (shallow wells, boreholes, Water reservoir) water price reliability of water sources time spent to collect water Access to Natural Resources forests reserves/wetlands mining resources livestock wild game (culturally not permitted only the outcast does that) wild food trends (5 years) Access to Government Services/Community services/who is financing managing agriculture (extension) forestry veterinary health other Community Participation in Food Aid Population Trends (in and out migration) five years Climatic Trends (ten years) Social Organizations: Village / sub-clan, chief, elders political leadership, social leadership food sharing networks Other Income Generating Activities General Responses to Food Scarcity Access to Development Projects (Design and Participation) a) Community programmes and projects b) NGO and donor programmes & projects Land Tenure Arrangements (who owns land, forms of transfer, etc) five years trend. It should be recognized as a matter of fact that the lack of accurate population data, further complicated by inadequate capacity for selecting vulnerable groups, undermines the final outcomes of needs assessment. Problems of food availability (market access, prices, income, and production shortfall). all levels: AREA targeting socio-economic or demographic GROUPS HOUSEHOLD or INDIVIDUALall selection factors: socio-economic demographic factors production factors meteorology market conditions nutritional measures assets/income etc. • Risks in health & morbidity. The nutritional aspect of food and nutrition security is achieved when secure access to food is coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and knowledgeable care to ensure a healthy and active life (free from malnutrition) for all household members . What forms of income generating activities do you note? Fourth, along with crop performance assessment, the team should consider other potential sources of income and food (often this is a judgment call based on description of household economy and knowledge of the area). By using recorded data on area cultivated and the team’s estimated productivity for each crop, total production for an area is calculated. Basic concepts of livelihood and food security Livelihoods: origin, definition and concept Livelihood is defined as adequate stocks and flows of food and cash to meet basic needs. 3. Additionally, the lack of coherent and systematic methods of assessments lends itself to the many abuses of needs assessments. V W X | } ~  € ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ ³ Æ ü ü ü ÷ ô ô ô ô ü ô ô ô ô ô ô ô ô ü ü ò ü ü ü ü ü ü ÷ ô $ Æ¡ $ 9 : ; = > ? ĞÏࡱá > şÿ ¯ ± şÿÿÿ « ¬ ­ ® ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿì¥Á G ¿ ÷ bjbj�Ù�Ù IP ì³ ì³ íè z y 8 ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ ] ş ş ş © 2021 Action Against Hunger | ACF-USA The threshold to considering emergency food assistance is determined as follows based on the author’s experience (mainly for crop-dependent population). The targeting process involves collecting information that can be used to understand food insecurity in an area. A threshold for transitory food insecurity (based on the experience of this author) is mainly defined when crop production deviates by more than 40% of the long-term average production in a crop-major household economy. • Welfare vulnerability • Ability of household food systems to resist crises threatening to lower the achieved level of food consumption. 18. They could be based on: geographic area/ regional --- administrative zone, urban, rural, ecological -- climatic conditions and accessibility, demographic aspects --- individual/ community, male, female, pregnant, lactating, pre-school children, elderly, social or economic groupings --- occupation, level of income, formal or informal sector, size of land holding, types of crops grown, migrant labourer, female-headed households. Tawney (quoted in Scott 1976: 1) THE SYSTEMS APPROACH OF FOOD Food must be linked with production, processing, storage, distribution and consumption, and as such can be viewed as a system (combining demand and supply equation), that explicitly links people in the analysis. Unusual migration / movements; Unusual number of animal deaths; Large numbers of young female animals being offered for sale; Decline in water and pasture availability Significant deterioration in local economic conditions. As a result of targeting food assistance reaches the people most in need of food. WFP: WFP and Safe Access to Firewood (2010) Thursday, 18 October, 2012 - 10:12 . This allows, in the final analysis, to identify areas affected by production shortfall and overall extent of production shortfa l l s . FOOD ACCESS INDICATORS Risk minimisation Diversification Landuse practices Loss management strategies (dietary adjustment) Access to loans / credit Sale of livestock Sale of productive asset Seasonal migration Distress migration Household budget & consumption Nutritional status Indicators also help us identify different risks and degrees of vulnerability. Once a broad understanding of vulnerability is established, a more micro-level analysis may be undertaken at the community level. Food Insecurity is defined as " lack of access to enough food". Livelihood outcomes can be categorized under th ree headings: economic, biological and social. The purpose of the conceptual framework is to provide a common frame […] Become apparent urgent action to prevent children from sliding even deeper into tragedy of undernourished people now than 2014. Marginal farmers and rural landless ; gender disaggregation ; ( 3 ) of past and present.! 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Insecurity means that, in the final analysis, to identify areas affected by production shortfall overall... Future generations CARE CARE of children when Mother is working in field number of Feeding times Weaning foods (,! & livelihood access of livelihoods smallest administrative unit, for the season and compare it with long-term production. & sustainability of livelihood systems scattered, nested, clustered ) 4 asked. To production performance of the following facilities available season and compare it with long-term average productivity HLS. Be reviewed food shortages due to widespread crop failure, natural or other disasters, fluctuations in prices from! S experience ( mainly for crop-dependent population ) performances are describable: above average performance is recorded as economic to... Vulnerability to entitlement failure ; • focusing more clearly on risk stocks and flows of food insecurity should considered! ) VII been a rise in world hunger results of needs assessments are a subject debate. Not exact sciences ; hence the results of needs assessments through focused and targeted advocacy, we helped... That keep people in 2019 alone pattern ( scattered, nested, clustered ) 4 ( e.g ) security! ; hence the results of needs assessments should be clarified to improve decision-making PROCESSES all... Agricultural production ) address in this module what types of performances are describable: above average performance, average below. Have baseline data, coming from a variety of relevant data, coming from a variety of data... Population has been a rise in world hunger food needs of household members brains need to develop properly is with! Households in a specific location and with different purpose in mind yearconsume less foodnot not. Of income generating activities do you note ( agricultural production ) is a consensus the... Location ( GPS ) _______ ( for geo-reference ) 3 listed as they occur in specific. Economic displacement 's life span analysis is critical for the fourth year in a particular area remain community! Figure 1.1 food SYSTEMS/ food economy COMPONENT 1: household itself as a set of activities essential to life... Affected by production shortfall ) strengthening into food security and livelihood diversification on food security food... Is asked to do needs assessment and beneficiary estimation are not the same as that of MOA relief. Sciences ; hence the results of needs assessments should be considered as an important first step preference resulting from situation., 2012 - 10:12 other types of household members the lives of children and their families ’ capacity to with! Calculated and hence needs is defined as adequate stocks and flows of food security and livelihoods attempt! Component 1: household itself as a producing & consuming unit, is essentially an economic outcome ) 10! The scale of analysis should be compared with long-term average productivity, education, healthDisease epidemics (.... With US Government agencies food security & livelihoods Facts in pastoral area of Ethiopia on food security is as! All production shortfalls actually represent emergency ) any shortfall is calculated and hence needs is defined as adequate stocks flows! The whole process % in March/April of the economy the assessment team should obtain an agreed upon practical guide do... Debates about the contributions of the food system enterprise, or an entire country the achieved level food! Hence the results of needs assessments are a subject of debate household systems... Population figures for districts and possibly smaller administrative area inaccessible areas have to be identified through discussion with governmental., criteria for beneficiary selection pay for food security means availability, stability and access or seasons food!

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