The next strategy consisted mainly of the food crops maize and teff, and involved coffee and khat (‘two food crops, coffee and khat’, n = 78). However, the government’s Growth and Transformation Plan II aims “to transform… from subsistence to more commercially-oriented agriculture” through various means including increasing coffee production, agricultural intensification and orientation of certain crops for markets (Ethiopia National Planning Commission 2016). However, consequences are not always positive particularly for the poor; and diverging outcomes have been observed for different community groups. Food Sec. Google Scholar. Underlying all four panels are the combined principal component analysis (PCA) and the cluster analysis of livelihood variables with each data point representing a household and a corresponding livelihood strategy indicated by a symbol. The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. 2011; Martin et al. The length of an arrow indicates the strength of correlation. Various studies have explored the ways assets relate with livelihood strategies and found how lack of access to assets prevents individuals and households from engaging in strategies that generate more benefit (Bebbington 1999; Carter and Barrett 2006). A generalized linear model showed that livelihood strategies were significantly associated with food security outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the livelihood strategies and the coping mechanisms used by rural households in Abela Lida The final questionnaire consisted of four sections, namely: (1) general household characteristics; (2) livelihoods; (3) capital assets; and (4) food security (see Online Resource 2). (2014) Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis. Additionally, we fitted isotropic smooth surfaces using generalized additive models to visualize the relationship of the first two PCA axes with food security and with the number of crops per household. This study examined the livelihood strategies and food security situation of rural households around Derba Cement Factory by taking a randomly selected sample of 215 heads of farm households from three rural kebeles. URL: http://www.fao.org/ethiopia/fao-in-ethiopia/ethiopia-at-a-glance/en/. PubMed  (2003). Geographical Journal, 178(4), 313–326. (2011). The construction of livelihood strategies can be seen as the outcome of an actively negotiated process where households consider available capital assets, achievable household goals, and options for realizing these goals within the limits of capital assets (Rakodi 1999). Cash cropping and food crop productivity: Synergies or tradeoffs? st Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d’études du développement, 35(2), 211–227. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Coping strategies are defined as temporary responses forced by food insecurity. In terms of further research, a sociological conceptualization of livelihoods could be useful to understand in more detail how contextual factors are negotiated and how they shape observed livelihood strategies. For example, a household that is mainly reliant on maize, with coffee and khat could improve its food security by adding other food crops such as teff and sorghum. We therefore included ‘coffeeplot’ in our examination of the links between capital assets and livelihood strategies. Agricultural commercialization and food security in rural economies: Malawian experience. Nutrition security is attained by individuals when the body tissues are exposed to optimal amounts of nutrients and other essential substances. Ellis, F. (2000). Effects of coffee management on deforestation rates and forest integrity. Agriculture in developing countries is unable to meet food needs of rural people. Importantly, education was significantly associated with better food security possibly owing to improved decision-making skills and better access to information (Ogundari 2014). Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals. O’Brien, K., & Leichenko, R. (2000). It was pre-tested in a pilot study in August 2015, and revised before the data collection period, which ran from November 2015 to January 2016. For smallholder farming households, a common change is from subsistence-oriented production to commercially oriented production of crops. Frison, E., Cherfas, J., & Hodgkin, T. (2011). A recent study in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, also found that household food production for the purpose of household consumption resulted in lower levels of hunger. Geoforum, 64, 182–191. Bebbington, A. In addition, educational attainment of the household head had a positive association with food security (p = 0.02). Yet, the need to determine which livelihood strategies lead to the best food security outcomes within a specific context remains strong, particularly when certain government policies prioritize specific crops (e.g. Such landscapes often become the focus of government interventions for a shift to commercially-oriented agricultural production, despite many households not having the necessary capital assets to make the changes required (Pingali 2012). Hylander, K., Nemomissa, S., Delrue, J., & Enkosa, W. (2013). The gaba is a larger market occurring once a week, involving both men and women. (2007). (2008) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Khat is a popular stimulant that was sold in small or large bundles of twigs with leaves. Food security is a measure of the availability of food and individuals' ability to access it.According the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security, food security is defined as the means that all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their food preferences and dietary needs for an active and healthy life. Cash crop production, food price volatility, and rural market integration in the third world. 2015). Road improvement enhances smallholder productivity and reduces forest encroachment in Ghana. Values for the y-axis such as harvest were log-transformed and then scaled between 0 and 1 for comparability (see Online Resource 3 for measurement of each livelihood variable). Putting greater priority on intensified production of cash crops without equal priority on food crops or their diversification thus could inadvertently erode household and regional level food security. Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. Is the adapted household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) developed internationally to measure food insecurity valid in urban and rural households of Ethiopia? PubMed  Fishing farmers: Fishing, livelihood diversification and poverty in rural Laos. This is important because higher income from agricultural production has been found to be associated with improved food security (e.g. Farm production diversity and dietary quality: Linkages and measurement issues. This module illustrates how and what livelihoods strategies families use to cope with a crisis. Feleke, S. T., Kilmer, R. L., & Gladwin, C. H. (2005). transportation) as important contextual factors that influence the choice and outcomes of crop production (Fafchamps 1992; Radchenko and Corral 2018). From this, we randomly selected 365 households using the random selection function in QGIS on a high-definition map of the study area. Levine, S. (2014) How to study livelihoods: bringing a sustainable livelihoods framework to life. A returnee Food Security and Livelihoods’ Assessment was carried out in December 2015 in order to evaluate their current food security situation as well as existing livelihood opportunities in Musanze and Nyamasheke districts, where higher numbers of returnees are located. 1; also see Online Resource 5 for dendrogram). 2016; Vongvisouk et al. Subsequently, certain principles of livelihoods thinking were operationalized through the formulation of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (Carney 1999; Scoones 1998), or in short, the “livelihoods approach”. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development. Correspondence to 2017) causing serious disadvantage among female heads of households. In summary, livelihood strategies with coffee were associated with having access to coffee plots. The livelihood strategy ‘three food crops, coffee and khat’ was associated with a wide range of capital assets, particularly having larger aggregate farm field size and learning from other farmers. This is not to say that the cash-based approach is not beneficial, but rather that conditions necessary for enabling poor households to capture the benefits of the cash-based approach need to be present if such an approach is to be prioritized. Household food, nutrition and income security can be enhanced by following three intervention strategies: livelihood promotion (improving households' resilience for meeting food and other basic needs on a sustainable basis), livelihood protection (preventing an erosion of productive assets or assisting in their recovery) and livelihood provisioning (meeting food and other … At a basic level, however, and in view of land-grabbing in various parts of Ethiopia (Ango 2018), opening space for debate at the policy level, and exploring options for land sufficiency at the household level should at least be taken up; possibly alongside culturally appropriate efforts to address population growth. Land registration and gender equality in Ethiopia: How state-society relations influence the enforcement of institutional change. The widespread practice of sharecropping, including in coffee production, meant that there were households that harvested coffee but did not own coffee plots. For smallholder farming households, two plausible pathways of crop production have been advocated to increase food security, namely: (1) cash crop production (e.g. Crop diversification may divert resources from what could otherwise be a more efficient, profitable, and specialized livelihood strategy or production system – which in some instances and for certain groups may improve food security (von Braun 1995). Improvements to gender equality thus emerge as an important precondition for achieving food security (Njuki et al. In northern Vietnam, intensified and commercialized agriculture linked with cash crops also suggested the emergence of “new food insecurities and vulnerabilities” (Bonnin and Turner 2012). Conservation agriculture and gendered livelihoods in northwestern Cambodia: Decision-making, space and access. Impacts on income and nutrition and implications for policy. On the other hand, crop diversification may not always be the best strategy. rural livelihood and food security Nov 12, 2020 Posted By Astrid Lindgren Ltd TEXT ID 034d2262 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library managed by the united nations office the livelihood strategy three food crops coffee and khat was associated with a wide range of … Food Security and Strategies to Alleviate Food Shortage. An average of two fields for each household were sharecropped fields. This was followed by the strategy consisting mainly of maize, teff and khat (‘two food crops and khat, n= 88). Agricultural commercialization. Food Security, 10(1), 47–59. The FAO estimates that a total of 925 million people were undernourished in 2010, compared with 1023 billion in 2009. Different combinations of cash crops and food crops distinctively defined the livelihood strategies of households. Moreover, Fig. In the Bolivian Andes, production of diverse food crops for subsistence was found to be a plausible approach for improving household and children’s diets (Jones 2014). Kidanewold, B. Sibhatu, K. T., & Qaim, M. (2018). Social and cultural perceptions regarding food security and health in the departments of Bolivar and La Guajira, in the Caribbean region of Colombia. The Sustainable Livelihood framework approach is a comprehensive method for determination of food insecurity and poverty at household level. We processed the data in R (R Development Core Team 2008). Food security is closely related to, but not synonymous with, nutrition security and health. Radchenko, N., & Corral, P. (2018). Food Security, 7(3), 535–554. An analysis of variance of food security by its main determinants among the urban poor in the city of Tshwane, South Africa. Effects of agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rain on dietary adequacy and household food security in rural areas of Kenya. Additional marginal livelihood activities included maintaining a home garden, production of legumes, milk, honey and engagement in other income-generating activities. This study was funded by a European Research Council (ERC) consolidator grant to JF. Van Buuren, S., & Groothuis-Oudshoorn, K. (2011). Gender, assets, and market-oriented agriculture: Learning from high-value crop and livestock projects in Africa and Asia. Livelihood strategies in this area have traditionally been diversified and subsistence-oriented. Scoones, I. household food security as it brings to the fore issues of ‘vulnerability, sustainability and coping strategies’. A capital assets framework for analysing household livelihood strategies: Implications for policy. The Journal of Development Studies, 54(2), 256–270. Capitals and capabilities: A framework for analyzing peasant viability, rural livelihoods and poverty. 2005; Akinboade and Adeyefa 2018). Common livelihood problems such as lack of farmland, livestock and labor were typically addressed through sharecropping arrangements. 2. 2016), we identified capital assets that were significantly correlated with the PCA axes (permutation test, 999 repeats, p < 0.01). In the following, we (1) discuss the prevalence and importance of the observed gradient of livelihood strategies and food security outcomes, and (2) draw implications for leveraging contextually important capital assets so that households can move along the livelihoods gradient to improve their food security. economic, human, natural, physical, and social). Gebrehiwot et al. Article  The number of households in the kebeles ranged from 322 to 1222. Powell, B., Thilsted, S. H., Ickowitz, A., Termote, C., Sunderland, T., & Herforth, A. Article  Springer International Publishing, 97–117. Agriculture and Human Values, 32(4), 705–725. Empirical evidence from Tigray. Household food insecurity (HFI) is the result of poverty, poor health of the household member or members, and suboptimal livelihood and household management strategies (6). At the kebele level, there were two types of markets. The respondents, of which 182 were men and 155 were women, had a mean age of approximately 40 years. With combinations of diverse food and cash crops, households in southwest Ethiopia were able to take advantage of what Ellis (2000) termed “complementarities between crops”. Sustainability, 3(1), 238–253. Yet, a critical investigation of this is important because elsewhere, trajectories of livelihoods towards cash crops have been associated with simplification of livelihoods or reduction of livelihood diversity, and shifts in diets (Nichols 2015). Four anonymous reviewers provided helpful comments to improve the manuscript. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Here, questions related to various capital asset variables belonging to one of five capital asset types (i.e. Quisumbing, A. R., Rubin, D., Manfre, C., Waithanji, E., van den Bold, M., Olney, D., Johnson, N., & Meinzen-Dick, R. (2015). In Sulawesi, Indonesia, Belsky and Siebert (2003) found that food self-sufficiency would likely decline with conversion of food-crop focused swidden fields to cocoa farms. Global Food Security, 1(2), 114–119. Households that were able to pursue livelihood strategies with three food crops, had on average, a hectare of land in contrast with households that undertook the strategy ‘one food crop, coffee, and khat’ with only a third of a hectare. 2a). Belsky, J., & Siebert, S. (2003). Maxwell, S., & Fernando, A. The first and second axes of the PCA accounted for 26% and 23% of variation in the data, respectively. We used a survey questionnaire for data collection. They also tended to have farm tools, access to honey, and mobile phones more than households with other livelihood strategies (see Online Resource 7 for the full range of significant capital asset variables). 2014; Powell et al. M’Kaibi, F., Steyn, N., Ochola, S., & Plessis, L. D. (2015). How to research the changing outlines of African livelihoods. 2016). For the second section, we defined livelihood strategies as the combination of different livelihood activities that households engaged in, including those from which households earned in cash, and in kind (Loison 2015). Within government circles, this trajectory from subsistence to commercial orientation is perceived as promising potential benefits for food security. 1 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 4 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 7 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 10 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 13 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 16 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 19 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 22 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 25 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 28 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 31 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 34 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 37 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 40 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>>> endobj 43 0 obj<>stream This is in line with findings from gender and development research that examined systematic inequality around access and control of capital assets (Quisumbing et al. The livelihood strategy ‘three food crops, coffee and khat’ was associated with a wide range of capital assets, particularly having larger aggregate farm field size and learning from other farmers. This is the period just before harvest, when remaining food stocks are at their lowest. Typically food security is thought of as being related to availability and access of foodstuffs. Furthermore, food security was not only influenced by livelihood strategies, but also by other household characteristics such as gender and educational attainment of the household head. 240. 2015). Shifting production/shifting consumption: A political ecology of health perceptions in Kumaon, India. The majority of households engaged in smallholder farming as their main livelihood. We focused on Ethiopia where, in 2015, about 81% of the population lived in rural areas and mainly relied on agriculture for their livelihoods (World Bank 2016). Modified versions of the HFIAS have been found to be robust tools for assessessing food security in other parts of Ethiopia (Gebreyesus et al. Gender of household head was also significantly associated (p = 0.03). 2013). However, under conditions of weaker market barriers, households were likely to choose cash crops. (2015). In southern Ethiopia, the shift towards greater production of the cash crop khat (Catha edulis) was found to negatively affect the supply of food crops grown by households (Gebrehiwot et al. These findings may also explain the preponderance of diverse food crops in southwest Ethiopia, which has been similarly characterized by seasonal food insecurity (Ethiopia CSA and WFP 2014) and limited market access.

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