Sound deserves its own pollution category. Phasor Pain Field Generator. (BBC, 2003) cites the U.S’s PsyOps use of heavy metal and children’s music as a means of interrogation during warfare. The audio spectrum, showing infrasound, sound and ultrasound. The natural frequencies of most of them are below 12 Hz (which is in the infrasonic range). Understanding Your Brainwaves. (2015) Social anxiety disorder linked to high serotonin levels. However, though it is well documented that music and sound has been used within interrogation scenarios, this perhaps does not allow us to have an understanding of how sound effects our brain, as one can associate it’s effect as more physiological, due to sensory depravation caused, as a pose to psychological change. New Scientist, September Issue. Stating that the device had been deployed by the U.S military for use within Iraq, in order to deceive the enemy by creating the sound ‘fake’ troops. The effect of sound on humans is complex. This suggest that perhaps the device’s intended use is to create auditory discomfort for the target audience, in order for them to move away from a specific area. It means the higher the decibel/amplitude of the subliminal message, the better the results. Alternative therapies in health and medicine. Retrieved from http://, www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/1420380/posts Toffler, A., Alvin, & Toffler, H. (1995). Acoustic noise. It has also been used to detect people’s mouth movements in noisy locations, or where subjects are whispering (or miming speech). Despite there bing many references to acoustic weaponry, as early as World War 2, it is in the 1960’s that actual documented research becomes more available. In 1973, The United States deployed the Urban Funk Campaign, a psychoacoustic attack during the war with the intention of altering mental states of their enemies (Goodman, 2010). Within the description of this device, it also states “if at any time head or neck feels swollen or you feel light headed or sick to your stomach, it is an indication that you are being affected. The length of the chamber was one- quarter the wavelength of the sound in air. The mechanisms for this process depends on the echo time or Doppler shift, of the reflected ultrasonic sound on the internal organs or soft tissue, thus resulting in a 2d or 3d image (Georgia State University, no date). This corresponds with the median alpha-rhythm frequencies of the brain.”. Harding, G. W., Bohne, B. It’s not unreasonable to state that within a varying amount of research conducted in this field, there is little evidence to suggest why infrasound actually has an effect on human emotion. . The Case of the Mythical Beast. Gavreau’s discovery within this field has been largely researched and discussed throughout the acoustic warfare field. Moreover, devices similar to this have also been developed previously; though military and law enforcement have denied the use of ultrasonic devices it apparent that such exist. Similar to that of light being focused into a laser, hypersonic sound works under a similar principle, with a speaker being focused into a highly directional focused beam of sound. Retrieved from https:// crab.wordpress.com/2008/01/14/a-short-history-of-sound-weapons-pt2-infrasound/, Davies, A. Retrieved from http://waubrafoundation.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/ Broner-The-effects-of-low-frequency-noise-on-people.pdf, Carovac, A., Smajlovic, F., & Junuzovic, D. (2011). Throughout the 20th and 21st century, there has been a vast amount of research collected and interest gained in the use of non-lethal weapons (NLW), which are intended to immobilise or impair targets without causing permanent or severe damage to the human body. Hypersonic Sound and other inventions (Lecture). The ultrasonic is defined as sound waves with a frequency exceeding the human hearing limit. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Walonick, D. S. (1990). Just walking past, or sitting near, the active emitter for a short time could cause damage. Infrasound attacks appear to be less common than ultrasonic attacks, but we are increasingly getting alarming reports on it. New York: Meredith, Braithwaite, D. (2006). (2005). Not quite the injuries reported by the diplomats. Write an article and join a growing community of more than 119,700 academics and researchers from 3,848 institutions. While the voice hissed and hooted, a sergeant hurled out handfuls of leaflets which made the same threats in writing.” (Pilger, 1986). . (Vinokur, 1993), “. The frequency that forms our own perception of sound sits between 20Hz — 20,000Hz, though only constituting a small amount of frequency spectrum, our auditory range can play an important role on our body; such as our equilibrioception (balance), proprioception and kinaesthesia (joint motion and acceleration), time, nociception (pain), magnetoception (direction), and thermoception (temperature differences) (HEYS, 2011). As a result, this could lead to a plausible suggestion that military application of non-lethal audio weapons have not been made publicly available. There are numerous reports of animals acting strangely before an earthquake is first felt. Hearing Research. There are 3 types sound waves which can be classified as Audible Sound waves, Infrasonic sound waves, and Ultrasonic sound waves. Instead, these injuries are probably the side effects of intrusive surveillance. Seven hertz is also the average frequency of the brain’s alpha rhythms; thus this frequency has been described as dangerous but also relaxing. John Pilger describes this within his book Heroes when discussing a PsyOps Officer in Vietnam: “His favourite tape was called “Wandering Soul,” and as we lifted out of Snuffy he explained, “what we’re doing today is psyching out the enemy. (n.d.). You see, the Vietnamese people worship their ancestors and they take a lot of notice of the spirits and stuff like that. Audible weapons include playing Bruce Springsteen and music from Barney the Dinosaur at very loud volumes to enemy troops or those undergoing interrogation. Vinokur, drew from Gavreau’s invention stating within his publication The Case of the Mythical Beast. Retrieved from https://borderlandsciences.org/journal/vol/52/n04/ Vassilatos_on_Vladimir_Gavreau.html, Vinokur, R. (1993). Goodman also supports this discussing “It has been noted that certain infrasonic frequencies plug straight into the algorithms of the brain and nervous system. The device utilised both infrasonic and ultrasonic frequencies, which emitted high decibel oscillations from a mounted helicopter onto the Vietnamese ground troops (Toffler, Alvin, & Toffler, 1995). Drawing from research collated pioneers within the sound-emotion connection, (Berlyne, 1971), (Meyer & Meyer, 1961), (Juslin & Sloboda, 2001) & (Liljeström, 2011) suggest six main mechanisms that happen when we perceive sound: The use of sound within our auditory range has been used to effect targets negatively from the mid-1900s. Contrary to that described previously, the use of binaural beats has been actively discussed as a means of stress relief for participants, with research such as that collated by (Huang & Charyton, 2008) citing “People suffering from cognitive functioning deficits, stress, pain, headache/migraines, PMS, and behavioural problems benefited from BWE. Music and emotion: Theory and research. As a result, this study will collect primary research within this area to allow for a greater insight into the application of these techniques. Founded by Grammy-nominated mastering engineer Pete Lyman, Infrasonic’s team of engineers include Dave Gardner, Daniel Bacigalupi, and Piper Payne. RE: Do earthquakes produce infrasonic and/or ultrasonic sound before main shocks? When on high power, the effects are like a “punch in the guts”, ranging from nausea to involuntary evacuation of the bowels. Ultrasound maintains very directional wave forms, due to their smaller wavelength and is very easily absorbed by materials, which allows for a greater application of use than other frequency bandwidths (Carovac, Smajlovic, & Junuzovic, 2011). The stimulus frequency reverberated by this induces a specific cerebral wave corresponding to characterised states of mind. Acoustic imaging was the primitive use of infrasonic sound during World War 2, for the use of radar and sonar techniques in order to detect locations of enemy artillery (Ihde, 2015). With research such as (Mercola, 2015), discussing the role of increased Serotonin levels positively effecting the feeling of anxiety, that perhaps one may see the benefits of BWE. Beneficial Subliminal Music: Binaural Beats, Hemi-Sync and Metamusic. A single ultrasonic emitter (loudspeaker) would struggle to generate enough power to affect someone halfway across a typical room. These ghosts, these ancestors, are going to tell the Vietcong to stop messing with the people’s right to live freely, or the people are going to disown them.” The helicopter dropped to within twenty feet of the trees. This is the resonant frequency of flesh and, theoretically, it can rupture internal organs if loud enough. (2008). Retrieved from http://schizophonia.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Alex_Davies_Acoustic_Trauma.pdf, De Laro Research. Doctrine for Joint Psychological Operations. Every time they move, each emitter would have to carefully steer its beams accordingly. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, New Scientist. Could surveillance of diplomats be the cause of these brain injuries. As previously cited by (Goodman, 2010), it is documented that the frequency range of 7Hz is thought to instil effects of uneasiness, anxiety, fear and anger. Frequencies are less than 20 Hz. Ultrasonic. In addition to this, we also see discussed by (Sargeant, 2001): “The frequency that is thought to be most dangerous to humans is between 7 and 8Hz. Within Table 1 we can see a notable number of applications that infrasound could possibly or has been applied for: Infrasound has resulted in a large amount of interest within the creation of NLW. Ultrasonic Sound has a frequency greater than the audible frequency range. Emotion and meaning in music. Following this discovery Gavreau made discussions that highlighted the effect of infrasonic frequencies to humans, citing it as a possible cause of city dwellers’ stress (Broner, 2003). Retrieved from http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18780583, Ihde, D. (2015). USA: Quantum, Wahbeh, H., Calabrese, C., & Zwickey, H. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.iwar.org.uk/psyops/resources/us/jp3_53.pdf, Vassiltos, G. (n.d.). Steatornis caripensis, the oil bird of South America, forages during the night and sleeps in … Ultrasonic is usually applied to sound which is referred to anything above the frequencies of audible sound, and includes anything over 20,000 Hz. What are the Similarities — if any — between these two Distant Practices? Retrieved from http://www.eastcoastrip.org/did-you-know/ infrasound, E. Simon, L. (1971). The use of the LRAD has been seen as a means of crowd control and has been identified in scenarios such as repelling pirates in Somalia and suicide bombers in the middle east (Goodman, 2009). Infrasonic waves are inaudible to human ear and their frequency ranges are below 20hz. This in fact, gives us a great insight into the development of techniques used within prior wars and the advancement that has been made with technology of those discussed in previous sections. Hemispheric- synchronisation during anaesthesia: A double-blind randomised trial using audiotapes for intra-operative nociception control. Driving an automobile with an open window may generate an infrasonic resonance. Of course, the amplitude of any resonance vibrations depends significantly on damping, which transforms mechanical energy into thermal energy . (Eds.) More than 20000 Hz. Acoustic scientists investigating the result of noise pollution on workers determine that every organ within the human body has a resonant frequency and it’s own ‘acoustic properties’, this effect is discussed as a possible means as to why frequency has an effect on the human body (Prashanth & Venugopalachar, 2010). This technique has been applied to many non-warfare scenarios, which allows us to understand the importance of it’s application. Less than 20 Hz. Sonic, Infrasonic, and Ultrasonic Frequencies: The utilisation of waveforms as weapons, apparatus for psychological manipulation, and as instruments of physiological influence by industrial, entertainment, and military Organisations. Ex-amples of the former are thunder, volca-nic activity, winds, large waterfalls and the impact of ocean waves, whereas examples of the latter are high-powered aircraft and rocket propulsion systems, explosions, sonic booms, bridge vibra- Retrieved from http:// www.compoundsecurity.co.uk/security-equipment-mosquito-mk4-anti-loitering-device, Cook, P. R. Professor of Computing, Head of School (Medway), University of Kent. This perhaps was a result of that described in Philip Gerard’s book Secret Soldiers: How a Troupe of American Artists, Designers and Sonic Wizards Won World War II’s Battles of Deception Against the Germans: “…screaming whine caused by a siren deliberately designed into the aircraft…it instilled a paralysing panic in those on the ground…For Division 17 of the National Research Defence Committee, the lesson was clear: sound could terrify soldiers…So they decided to take the concept to the next level and develop a sonic ‘bomb’…The idea of a sonic ‘bomb’ never quite panned out, so the engineers shifted their work toward battlefield deception.” (Gerard, 2002). Urasonic waves and infrasonic waves 1. . Ultrasonic sounds have a frequency above the upper limit of human hearing. Ultrasonic sound is often produced using either piezoelectric or magnetostrictive transistors, by applying the output of an electronic oscillation within the device (Georgia State University, no date). Responses of the ear to low frequency sounds, infrasound and wind turbines. Infrasonic Sound Retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy- astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/infrasound.html, Gerard, P. (2002). Journal of Sound and Vibration. We can also see from this that the application of ultrasound has in fact been popular by the military and one could assume that there may be more progressed development within this field. ‘Hypersonic sound’ can be referred to simply as the focusing of ultrasound. It also cannot be felt or heard, which fits the facts reported by the diplomats. It is unlikely to be the result of a deliberate “sonic attack”. Sources of infrasound in nature include volcanoes, avalanches, earthquakes and meteorites. The article in New Scientist reports that the audio produced psychoacoustic effects giddiness, nausea, fainting, or merely a “spooky” psychological effect to targets. Moreover, there are cases that perhaps suggest a possible application of infrasound to cause physical damage to the ear drum. Applications of high-power ultrasonic with low frequency aim to improve the quality of food products. Ultrasonic (high frequency) bursts have been used as a teenager repellant, and ultrasound is known to cause headaches and nausea. Though the exact frequency range that was created is discussed in many aspects of military application, it’s important to draw from research to discover which areas of brainwave entrainment may perhaps effect the human body negatively. & Meyer, D. J. Sources:Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory. However, this does not suggest that the effect of infrasound on both IHC and OHC do not have a psychological effect on the brain. Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/DTIC_ADA030476/ DTIC_ADA030476_djvu.txt, BBC. The effects of low frequency noise on people. Ultrasonic waves are waves that have high amplitudes. . Increasing beta brainwaves will not increase the likelihood of you becoming crazy, but they could make you feel more paranoid than usual.”. As for detection of such methods, it’s a sad state of affairs. It is reported that Gavreau had discovered the infrasound weapon by result of a resonant frequency being emitted from a motor-driven ventilator within his office (Vassilatos, no date). It has frequency less than the audible frequency range. This method of entrainment occurs when two coherent frequencies within our audible range, are made present in both the left and right ear. If a subject moved their head into just the right location, waves from different emitters could combine at the eardrum, causing much higher energies. As a result, the effect of infrasound on IHC’s within the ear, could be suggested as inefficient thus resulting in infrasound’s effect on the ear, physically, being normal (Salt & Hullar, 2010). The effect of sound on our brain often leads back to a common theme of resonance. The audible part of the spectrum shows the threshold of human hearing, and plots of equal loudness (measured in phons). It’s apparent that some concepts of using infrasound may violate disarmament treaties, for example, the 1999 European Committee stated: “global ban on all research and development, whether military or civilian, which seeks to apply knowledge of the chemical, electrical, sound vibration or other functioning of the human brain to the development of human beings, including a ban on actual or possible deployment of such systems” (Giordano, 2014). I would imagine that if your brainwaves get high enough in the beta range, you will begin to notice a fear of things that are not normal to freak out over. • The word ultrasonic combines the Latin roots ultra, meaning ‘beyond’ and sonic, or sound. Acoustics and Psychoacoustics (4th ed). It has the frequency greater than the audible frequency range. Exposure to levels above 80db between 0.5Hz and 10Hz causing these possible vibrational movements within the ear’s functions, are said to cause psychological changes such as fear, sorrow, depression, anxiety, nausea, chest pressure and hallucinations (ECRIP, 2008). Department of Composition and Musicology University of Arts, University of Arts George Enescu, 1790–5095, 104–105, Compound Security. Sitting in the wrong position for too long could then cause hearing damage without the subjects noticing. So has ultrasound been used against them? Infrasound can be generated by both natural and man-made events. Infrasonic is a related term of supersonic. The preliminary proof of concept and main body of contextual research in this field stems from German professor of Physics, Heinrich Wilhelm Dove, who made discoveries in brainwave entrainment (BWE) through infrasonic frequencies entitled “Binaural beats” in 1841 (Kliempt, Ruta, Ogston, Landeck, & Martay, 1999). That’s when we come in and talk to them.” (BBC, 2003). Though there is no record of the specification of this device, one can assume that the U.S Military had tested the infrasonic frequency ranges in order to achieve a psychological effect on it’s targets. Frequencies are more than 20000 Hz. It is this property that is held within all matter, that we can apply sound as a means of resonance within the human body. The vibrational movement created by the infrasonic frequency result in large fluid movements of cochlear fluid, the intermixing of cochlear fluid is hypothesised to result in lasting damage. It’s called infrasound, and its effect on human beings is not completely understood. As adjectives the difference between infrasonic and supersonic is that infrasonic is (of sound waves|acoustics) having frequencies below the human audible range while supersonic is (of a speed) greater than the speed of sound (in the same medium, and at the same temperature and pressure). After analysing previously explored research within this field, a large amount of research refers to the United State’s military and their Psychological Operations Units (PsyOps) (United States Military, 1996). The LRAD focuses a directional 15° to 30° beam of sound between 1kHz and 5kHz reaching a distance of around 5,500 meters (LRAD , 2015). A longitudinal wave whose frequency is above the upper limit of audible range i.e. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21173483, Salt, A. N. & Hullar, T. E. (2010). The extent of these biological effects depend on how the ultrasound reaches the person being “attacked”. Brainwave entrainment (or often referred to as neural entrainment) defines itself as the use of certain frequencies to activate bands of electrical wave resonance within our brain, to induce neurological states within our body. It is clear to see that the effect of sonic weapons used in order to impact the human body physiologically and alter the subjects mental state, is of large importance when researching acoustic warfare weapons. Israel may use sound weapon on settlers. Retrieved from http://www.ronpellegrinoselectronicartsproductions.org/Pages/ NsNSndPltnFndmntPrncpls.html/SndDsrvsOwnPltnCtgry.html, Prashanth, M. & Venugopalachar, S. (2010). However, it is important to understand at this point within this study, that this does not just encompass infrasonic sound but also applies to ultrasonic sound too. On the Compound Security System’s website, who are the company behind the M.A.D, they specify that the sine wave frequency played by the device, at 20kHz, can only be heard by those under 25 years of age (Compound Security, 2015). One of which is it’s application to military usage. They are linked to increased stress, which is why it is important to learn how to shift your brainwaves when needed. Goodman states “…resonating with alpha and theta rhythms in the brain known to produce moods of fear, anxiety or anger” (Goodman, 2009, p. 18). We are here to serve electronically Targeted Individual (TI) victims to help save them from their perps. However, as previously mentioned in section 3.2.2, hypersonic sound used in devices like the LRAD do in fact utilise audible frequencies too and it is important to understand the cohesion within it’s application. The infrasonic sounds have below the lower limit of human hearing. Results found that 22% of the participants experienced a feeling of anxiety and fear (Stathatos, no date). A large influence on the development and notable usages of infrasonic frequencies as a means of deterrence, was the development of a low-frequency acoustic device by French scientist Vladimir Gavreau (Lothes, 2004). A similar experiment entitled ‘The Haunt Project’ conducted by the Anomalistic Psychology Research Unit of Goldsmiths College, London, subjected 79 volunteers to a varying array of infrasonic frequencies. Infrasonic. There are two ways ultrasound can harm humans. It can be transitory (the bubble forms and disappears with each frequency cycle) or sustained. So it allows you to go nearly a mile away and communicate with people, and there can be a public beach just off to the side, and they don’t even know it’s turned on. Binaural beat technology in humans: A pilot study to assess Psychologic and physiologic effects. Acoustic Technics. Each frequency enters the auditory canal of the ear through to the cochlea; in turn the basilar membrane resonates at the frequency heard, this passes to the brain allowing us to recognise the frequency (Cook, 1999). Perhaps infrasonic sound provides the right range of sound for the circumstance of shared earth. Just as TI perps are usually experts at harassing and persecuting TIs, they use those same intentions against us. At greater ranges, perhaps up to 300 meters, the effect, although not lethal, would be very painful and would probably disable a man for an appreciable length of time. Following this, Gavreau developed a device that emitted infrasonic sine wave frequencies around 7hertz, with military application, (Vassilatos, no date) said to induce painful symptoms effecting his laboratory staff with immediate effect, other results are reported of the likes of the feeling of fear and flight. Sound waves with frequencies above 20000 Hz are called ultrasonic sound. Sonic weapons fall into two categories: those that involve audible frequencies, and those that are either ultrasonic or infrasonic and so are inaudible. Audible and inaudible sounds are two of categorization of sound according to their frequencies and capabilities of humans to hear or detect them. (2009). Sometimes you may experience a continuous ringing in the ears even after the device is turned off” (Free Information Society, no date). Oil Bird. It is also apparent that such frequencies have been used in many varying fields to provide evidence of it’s existence, exterior to military and police usage. Frequencies of 7 hertz, for example, coincide with theta rhythms, thought to induce moods of fear and anger.” (Goodman, 2010). Frequencies below 50Hz commonly lose their coherence and are perceived to pulse or fluctuate, which is analogous to the strobing beat of a modulated light.”. Whether exposure to such infrasound can trigger epileptic seizures, as some fear, remains unclear; experimental data on exposure to such frequencies gives a variety of results. WARNING ALERT! The preliminary applications of ultrasound can be seen as a means of radar detection, similar to that of infrasound discussed in section 3.1, with the employment of submarine detectors in World War 1 (Carovac, Smajlovic, & Junuzovic, 2011). Though it is apparent that the use of ultrasound has not been as widely investigated as both the infrasonic and sonic frequency fields, we can still see a common interest in it’s application for military use. Now you’ve got to understand the Vietnamese way of life to realise the power behind Wandering Soul. Sound waves with frequencies below 16 Hz are called infrasonic sound. The military usage of hypersonic ultrasound is perhaps a technical advancement of the acoustic deception techniques used in World War II by the ‘Ghost Army’ and that of the Urban Funk Campaign in Vietnam both discussed in section 3.2.2. (n.d.). Sound is only audible to the average human ear if the frequencies lie between 20Hz and 20kHz. (2015). 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