State. Therefore, future policy should focus on investment strategies that promote households access to off-farm and non-farm activities as well as on enhancing farmers' awareness. This research was therefore proposed with the aim of generating location specific data on livelihood strategies and its determinants in Borena … in Ethiopia, rural livelihood diversification strategies in Ethiopia, and livelihood diversification strategies. This study, by employing the logistic regression model reveals that, at less than 10 percent probability level among 11 variables, six variables namely Age of the household Head (AGEH), Type of the Family (FAMILYT) Size of the Family (FAMILYS), Monthly Per Capita Income (MPCI), Access to Credit (CREDIT) and remittance (REMIT) are significant determinant of livelihood diversification. Ethiopia’s agricultural productivity is considered low despite the presence of various agricultural policies. Even if our country Ethiopia practice agriculture This study examined the assets and livelihood choices of rural households. The selection of those variables is guided by previous empirical studies. Livelihood strategies are at the centre of human livelihoods. Descriptive statistics were used to describe farmers' adaptation strategies to climate change. The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. The role of rural labor market in reducing poverty in, Research, the Department of Agricultural Economics and Manageme, and Recommendations for Equitable and Accelerated Develop, FAO, 2012. The results imply that these factors need to be considered by policy makers in the planning of agricultural and non agricultural initiatives in this study area. A survey of 133 sample households, and four KIIs were employed. This paper analyzes the livelihood of the Borana pastoral communities of Southern Oromiya in Ethiopia. Thus, researchers, governmental and non-governmental institutions should pay attention beyond the farm's activities to strengthen the off-farm and non-farm activities to improve the livelihood of smallholder farmers. Surveys and key informant interviews (KII) were sources of data. Relevant secondary data were also obtained from Assosa district office of agriculture, national metrology agency and different reports. The multistage sampling technique was adopted to systematically select the 118 households from which to collect data through household surveys, field observation and FGDs. Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. This paper examines the determinants of income diversification among rural households using cross sectional data collected from Fedis District of Eastern Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. Livelihood Adaptation and Diversification in Wolaita, Ethiopia (submitted to Human Ecology) Paper II: Ayele Tessema, 2008: Risk sharing, ceremonies and livelihoods: Funeral and wedding costs in Wolaita, Ethiopia (submitted to The Journal of Development Studies). Through all the search, 182 published and unpublished papers were collected. Determinants of Farmers’ Choice of Livelihood Strateg, frequency of extension contact, participation in, were significant variables determining household’s choice of livelihood strategies (see Appendix table 1). Relevant secondary data were also obtained from Assosa bureau of agriculture and rural development, other governmental offices, internet and reports. Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. A Master of Arts Thesis in Development Studies. Data was collected using key informant interview, focus group discussion and interview schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to identify asset endowments and livelihood activities while multinomial, The livelihood of most people in Ethiopia depends on subsistence agriculture whose carrying capacity has decreased due to rapid population growth rate and farm size reduction. This study examined the effect of household livelihood on food security in Angolela and Tera District by taking randomly selected sample of 256 household and multi-nominal probit regression was used. The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. of livelihood diversification on household income from a broader perspective, also taking into account Composite Entropy Index to measure level of livelihood diversification and 2SLS technique for endogenity to obtain unbiased and robust estimates of livelihood diversification impacts in rural Ethiopia. The finding of the survey result indicates that much of the rural households (61%) in the study area practice diversified livelihood strategies that combined on-farm activities with non/off-farm activities. Therefore, future policy should focus on awareness creation on livelihood diversification through different sources such as training and extension on off-farm and non-farm opportunities and on the role of participating in cooperatives, facilitating the availability of credit and fertilizer, enhancing elder farmers' knowledge, etc. Livelihood diversification strategies, including crop, labour and income diversification, are important in these contexts, although the motivations and outcomes may vary significant. Multivariate probit model was estimated to identify the factors determining households' choice of adaptation strategies to climate change. A mixed research method of … Employing mixed research approach, data for this investigation was generated from 215 randomly selected survey respondents, key informants and discussants. Thus, rural households engage in to different livelihood diversification activities to ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods. Despite some improvements in recent years, widespread poverty and food insecurity remain the main challenges in Ethiopia. Abstract. The livelihood of most people in Ethiopia depends on subsistence agriculture whose carrying capacity has decreased due to rapid population growth rate and farm size reduction. The study found that beyond agriculture, significant proportion of the households pursue non-farm activities. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. consistent with the finding of Woinishet (2010). more livelihood diversification and non-farm employment is typically good for individuals and overall economic growth in SSA. This could be due to the relation between larger family size and household, with a livestock activity. Fikru T., 2008. Access to irrigation and credit were positively affected choices of diversified livelihood strategies. Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. This is explained by th, accumulating assets for the future. The western part of Ethiopia, Assosa zonein particular, is hit by high degree of incidence of food insecurity as agricultural production and productivity is highly vulnerable to climate variables (Sani and Kemaw 2017). Furthermore, the estimated Tobit model result revealed that age of the household head, family size and off-farm and non-farm income positively affected extent of households food insecurity; whereas access to irrigation, farm income, distance to market and access to credit negatively affected the extent of households’ food insecurity. While, being aged, having more farm size and far from the main road hinder the households to diversify the livelihood strategies. The results of the model pointed out that the likelihood of households to adopt irrigation, improved varieties of crops, adjustment of planting date, crop diversification and soil conservation practices were 52.3%, 45.8%, 49.5%, 46.9% and 34.1%, respectively. Rural development strategy should emphasis in promoting nonfarm activities in rural areas. Hence, this study, This study identified farmers' choice of and factors determining adaptation strategies to climate change in Assosa district, western Ethiopia which is severely affected by climate change stresses. Finding shows that relatively those respondents who engaged in farming activities were more food secure than those confined to non-farm activities and mixed activities. Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. This study will help to formulate proper development policies on the part of various concerned authorities for supporting diversification in the rural areas. Relevant secondary data. The finding of the study revealed that the majority (66.1%) of sampled households was engaged in off-farm and non-farm employment opportunities. A study conducted by Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. The data were collected through both primary and secondary data collection methods. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries. Although still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly unable to provide a sufficient means of survival in rural areas. A mixed research method of sequential transformative strategy was used. Multivariate probit model was estimated to identify the factors determining households' choice of adaptation strategies to climate change. using fertilizer in agricultural production decreases the likelihood of a household using a combination of on-farm. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. Only 42 published and unpublished papers were considered to review the paper. Primary data were collected from a randomly selected 140 sample households through interview and focus group discussions. The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. A survey of 130 households in six administrative Kebeles and informal discussion with key informants were used to collect data. ;z¼.I´ôÃ¥;n›KÃLU§g–©¤6DÃ’Uùdá vâg"e!3AŸU.\.â¬üÅ¢�¶ÔgË|°;»'ko@ğ/ªF]²¾Î=}èñ~»˜Ï¿yiõ2ÙxèôWÛ#S–"cú¹(+YîgZì© ûØ+[û†•nºléUu¤73Ÿj-ºì¥±?«ã{­f}ĞyǪM˜ÂÆX{>³0'9GŸ2. The study argues that most smallholder farmers tend to diversify their livelihood strategies although various factors influence the diversification of livelihood strategies. A Master of Arts Thesis in Development Studies. The household food security was measured by Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). This study aimed at investigating the livelihood strategies practiced by rural households, and analyzing determinants of rural household’s choice of livelihoo, predominant sources of livelihood for the majority of the population in the area (, Peasant Associations (PAs) in the district, 2.3. In addition, FGD and key informant interview were used. From the model result, other things being constant, the, constraints to engage in alternative non/off-, alternative on-farm only (appendix table 1). Determinants of Rural Households Livelihood Strategies: Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agricult, non-farm and/or off-farm activities, whereas about 33.3% were relying only on on. Researchers found a positive influence of Family size on livelihood diversification [19]. Additional factors such as perception of erosion, education level, off-farm employment, and tenancy also influence conservation expenditures. for livelihood to be able to recover from “stress and shocks” but also to be able to “maintain and enhance” capabilities and assets into the future. The results also indicated that the joint likelihood of using all adaptation strategies was only 1.5% and the joint likelihood of failure to adopt all of the adaptation strategies was 3.5%. This result is consistent with the findings o, crops; and to obtain higher production and income. On the other hand, those household confined only non-farm livelihood were more food insecure. Since sustainable livelihood framework was developed the co-existence of livelihood strategies and livelihood outcome (food security in this case) has been a critical discussion for the past two decade. Both primary and secondary data sources were used for the study. Rural enterprise and wage-labor compared 9 7. Despite the continuing economic centrality of agriculture in the district, farm households engage and pursue diverse non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges and risks such as drought. Basic alternatives in rural livelihood diversification 7 6. Particularly, participation in off-farm wage activity has a positive and significant effect on household consumption expenditure and income but a negative and significant effect on the likelihood of a household being poor. The study used a primary data collected from 180 randomly selected households using interview schedule. Whereas, younger rural households cannot get enough farmland to support their families, and thus they get into diversified venture activities. Diminishing farm size, and large dependency ratio necessitated way out of subsistence farming. The result of the study is consistent wit. of employment opportunities and generates over 83% of foreign exchange earnings of the country, Ethiopia forced households to cultivate and, /or non-farm activities have got paramount importance to development practitioners and policy makers to find the, livelihood improvement. Even if our country Ethiopia practice agriculture After thorough reading, 42 papers were used to review out of 182 papers. Data Sources and Method of Collection, using interview schedule. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that the majority of the sample respondent households thus, 48.3% allocated all their labor force to pastoral and farming activities alone, while about 29.5% were involved in a combination of pastoral, farming and low return non pastoral nonfarm livelihood strategy and 22% work on pastoral, farming and high return non pastoral nonfarm combination of livelihood strategy. Hence, this study identified the livelihood strategies adopted by smallholder farmers and assessed the determinants of their decisions to choose diversified livelihood strategies in the Wogera district. The objective of the proposed project is to improved Livelihood Resilience of Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Communities in Ethiopia. The study finding also pointed out that the mean kilocalorie intake of food insecure households was 1440.37kcal/AE/day, with the minimum and maximum being 597.65 kcal and 2048.13 kcal, respectively. È1lrìÁ�ı`Ù‚ë¢ñåEÃ1¸±¿Zş®ùm¸–”Ïe¼xÓ‘ìcYi•ÖI%hUN"A�Œœ±Íô Fifth edition. However, in Ethiopia, small numbers of farmers are involved in nonfarm or o -farm business activities, with the majority (83%) of them being primarily engaged in farming and Therefore, policy makers should focus on the aforementioned factors to enhance farmers' adaptation to climate change in order to reduce their vulnerability to different shocks and seasonality as well as to improve their livelihood. Livelihood in the pastoral communities has diversified to very limited activities, which are not meant of improving livelihood but meant for survival. Primary data were collected from a randomly selected 140 sample households through interview and focus group discussions. A Case Study of Non-Farm Rural Livelihood Diversification in Lume Woreda, Oromiya Reginonal It is therefore not surprising that many development strategies and programs seek to design development interventions to better promote livelihood diversification. Abstract This study analyzed households’ food insecurity and its determinants along with the coping mechanisms opted against food insecurity and shortage in Assosa zone, western Ethiopia. Rural Households Livelihood Strategies, gives a breakdown of the different livelihood strategies that house, Figure 2: livelihood strategies used by rural households in the study area, combined crop and livestock production with, absence of difference) between the livelihood groups o, terms of total annual cash income and freq, and off-farm and a combination of farm, off-farm and, Table 1: Summary statistics for continuous variables by the c, On the other hand, a chi-square test indicated the existence of statistically si, difference between the livelihood groups in terms of the literacy status of HH h, and participation in cooperatives at less than 10% significanc, Table 2: Summary of statistics for dummy variables b, 3.3. It is universally accepted the fact that agriculture sector is incapable of creating sufficient gainful employment, food security and spurring economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. Researchmethods The study sites ˚e study was conducted during the year 2016/17 in Saesietsaeda Emba district, Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia which is found at about 883˝km north of Addis The aim of the study was to examine rural livelihood strategies and its effect on food security. logistic regression was employed to examine assets that determine choices of different livelihood options. To effect self development of the community, support to local cooperatives may have positive effects on the income generating capacity. Worrying about reduction of food insecurity directly or indirectly linked with the livelihood strategy. The study is conducted by using a cross-sectional research approach. Livelihood Diversification in Borana: Pastoral Communities of Ethiopia – Prospects and Challenges By Kejela Gemtessa, Bezabih Emana (Ph.D), Waktole Tiki Introduction This study focuses on the way of life of the Borana pastoral communities of Southern Oromia in Ethiopia, documenting a region moving from pure pastoralism to agro-pastoralism. This study identified farmers' choice of and factors determining adaptation strategies to climate change in Assosa district, western Ethiopia which is severely affected by climate change stresses. Moreover, the study identified that lack of off-farm and non-farm employment opportunities, time constraint, lack of financial resources, lack of awareness and health related problems as major challenges to engage in off-farm and non-farm activities. In Ethiopia, Bangladesh and Mali, for example, migration is widespread and in all three cases it is linked to income generation strategies (McDowell and de Haan, 1997). The study used a primary data collected from 276 randomly selected households for 7 consecutive days from each sample using weighed records method. 153, smallholder farmers in Fedis district, Eastern Hararghe z, Amsalu B., G. Kindie, K. Belay and S.P.R. Small enterprise development and sustainable rural livelihoods 10 References 13 . Data analysis revealed that agriculture has a leading contribution to the total income of sample households (64.1%) followed by nonfarm (22.8%) and off farm (13.1 %.). The results also indicated that the joint likelihood of using all adaptation strategies was only 1.5% and the joint likelihood of failure to adopt all of the adaptation strategies was 3.5%. in Ethiopia. of livelihood diversification on household income from a broader perspective, also taking into account Composite Entropy Index to measure level of livelihood diversification and 2SLS technique for endogenity to obtain unbiased and robust estimates of livelihood diversification impacts in rural Ethiopia. The Project would help improve livelihoods of people living in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas, contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1 (no Surveys and key informant interviews (KII) were sources of data. Propensity score matching technique is used to estimate the effect of labor market participation on poverty, consumption expenditure and income of smallholder farmers. hold livelihood diversifica()se the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households. analysis of factors determining livelihood diversification among smallholder farmers in kwazulu-natal by collin lazuras yobe submitted in fulfilment of the academic requirements for the degree of master of science in agriculture: agricultural economics in the school of agricultural, earth and environmental sciences However, in Ethiopia, small numbers of farmers are involved in nonfarm or o -farm business activities, with the majority (83%) of them being primarily engaged in farming and Therefore, to reverse the incidence, future interventions should focus on the aforementioned factors to build the capacity of households through enhancing their access to human, financial and physical capital. Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. Even though-variations in livelihood strategies exist, the overall picture is still one of considerable and broad-based poverty in the area. The smallholder farmers are engaged in off-farm and non-farm diversified livelihood strategies to improve their food security. This study examines the role of the rural labor market in reducing poverty and improving the well-being of smallholder farmers in rural Ethiopia. A Master of Arts Thesis in Development Studies. PDF | This study identified rural household livelihood strategies and their determinants in the Assosa district of BGRS, western Ethiopia. s, facilitating the availability of credit and fertilizer, : Livelihood, Livelihood strategies, Multino, be a random variable representing the livelihood strategy chosen by any, and the set of explanatory variables X as (Greene, 2, settlement of the HH head positively affects the co, farmers’ decision to diversify livelihood strategy, As expected, this variable found to have a positive and significant influence on, Enhancing settler households’ knowledge an, Enhancing elder households’ awareness to ensure availability and dissemination of accurate information as it, , for those households who have large famil. Block and Webb (2001) in food policy address the issue of the dynamics of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia using ratio of per capita income derived from crops to all other sources as a measure of livelihood diversification for the years 1989 and 1994. The result of the multinomial logit model revealed that family size, sex of household head, education status, livestock holding, access to credit, dependency ratio, access to extension, age of the household head and distance from the nearest have significant influences on household choice of livelihood strategies. Hence, rural livelihood diversification is equally important for poverty reduction, food security, and wellbeing [20,23]. The descriptive statistics result shows that agricultural activities are the most important source of income for rural households in Fedis District contributing 77% of total household income with the remaining 23% originating from nonagricultural activities. Migration forms a central component of livelihood diversification. However, these farmers could not easily participate in diversified activities. United Nations Development Pro, Woinishet A., 2010. A central element in this „resilience‟ to stress and shocks is the diversification of elements that comprise „livelihood‟. Results of the multinomial regression to identify determinants of rural household livelihood options indicated that the role of education and productive family, access to credit and receiving regular remittance, membership to formal cooperatives, access to market and business oriented extension service are of poor farm households to diversify their livelihood income into off-farm and non-farm activities. The data were obtained from 160 sample household heads that were selected through a combination of two-stage, purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Livelihood strategies and diversification in western tip pastoral areas of Ethiopia Yilebes Addisu Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. The finding of the study revealed that, in the study area, the incidence of food insecurity was 53.62%, with the depth and severity of food insecurity being 16.84% and 7.32%, respectively. Investment in … The data analyzed through STATA revealed that most households have diversified their livelihood strategies into off and/or non-farm activities to improve their livelihood. migration (often in itself a part of livelihood diversification) and agricultural intensification. Research, the Department of Agricultural Economics and Management Discussion Paper No. force to off-farm and non-farm activities. 1(5), pp. However, identification of the factors that determine households’ choice of livelihood strategies of pastoralists has received little attention. Besides, descriptive statistics, the multivariate logistic regression was applied for the identification of determinants that helped to choose diversified livelihood strategies. The very small number of studies conducted in Ethiopia documented the contribution of livelihood diversification to small holder farmers [9–11]. In addition, focus group discussions and key informants interview were also used. Moreover, Multivariate probit model confirmed that sex, literacy status, farming experience, family size, land holding, access to credit, access to media, extension contact, farmer to farmer extension, farm income, off/non-farm income, livestock ownership, market distance and access to training have a statistically significant impact on climate adaptation strategies. A mixed research method of sequential transformative strategy was used. Pastoral households have different access to resources and face different opportunities and challenges and thus choose different livelihood strategies calling for tailor made policy and development practice accordingly in line with their livelihood strategies choice. were undertaken to gather data having qualitative nature. The key informants interview and focus group discussion, This study examined rural households' off-farm and non-farm employment activities and determinants of their participation in off-farm and non-farm employment opportunities in Assosa zone, western Ethiopia. However, livelihood diversification is determined by complex and yet empirically untested factors in Debre Elias Woreda. Livelihood diversification is a strategy to avoid the risk associated with shocks and to improve livelihood security. This finding is in line, their income rather than using a combination of on, is consistent with the findings of Adugna and Waga, experiences. Food security of the household is a reply of available livelihood strategies. Moreover, Multivariate probit model confirmed that sex, literacy status, farming experience, family size, land holding, access to credit, access to media, extension contact, farmer to farmer extension, farm income, off/non-farm income, livestock ownership, market distance and access to training have a statistically significant impact on climate adaptation strategies.

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