2014;14(1):1. 2017;46(5):1668–77. Lancet. A descriptive measure of statistics such as percentage was used to describe the characteristics and causes of neonatal, post-neonatal and maternal deaths. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to explore the socio-economic and household characteristics associated with neonatal, post-neonatal and maternal mortality. Neonatal surgical care: a review of the burden, progress and challenges in sub-Saharan Africa. The wealth index was calculated as a score of household assets (i.e., television, radio, refrigerator, car, bicycle, motorcycle, source of drinking water, type of toilet facility, electricity and type of building materials used in the place of dwelling), using a principal component analysis [21]. Definition: PERINATAL MORTALITY RATE is the sum of the number of resident fetal deaths of 28 or more weeks gestation plus the number of resident newborns dying under 7 days of age in a specified geographic area (country, state, county, etc.) United Nations Children’s Fund. Tropical Med Int Health. The data are available online and can be applied for at https://dhsprogram.com/data/available-datasets.cfm. Post neonatal mortality rate – “number of infant deaths from 28 days to 365 days after birth divided by the number of live births minus neonatal deaths during a year (expressed as rate per 1,000 live births)” (Friis and Sellers, 2014). Adjusting for potential confounding variables, a multivariable analysis that independently examined the impact of each factor on each of the study outcomes was conducted. In England and Wales in 1989 this figure was 3.6. Available from: https://www.dhsprogram.com/topics/Infant-and-Child-Mortality.cfm. 1998;75(7):382–7. Lancet. It can be given by the infant mortality rate minus the neonatal mortality rate. Only a few studies explored the determinants of high PNMR in Bangladesh, yet most of them were small-scale or conducted for stillbirths and early neonatal deaths separately. Risk factors for postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 mortality in Nigeria: a pooled cross-sectional analysis. Using standardised questionnaires, the surveys collected maternal, child and household data (including births and deaths of children under-5 years) from women aged 15–49 years who participated in the surveys, with an average response rate of 98%. rate of 0.1 per 1,000 live births due to SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) was the lowest ever recorded in the state. Ettarh R, Kimani J. Determinants of under-five mortality in rural and urban Kenya. Afnan-Holmes H, Magoma M, John T, Levira F, Msemo G, Armstrong CE, et al. Table S3. A stillbirth is the death of a fetus weighing 500g or more, or of 22-weeks gestation or more if weight is unavailable (ICD 10). The rate of occurrence of negative test results in those who have the attribute or disease for which they are being tested. Between 2004 and 2016, we found that neonatal mortality rate remained unchanged, while postneonatal mortality and child mortality rates have halved in Tanzania. Furthermore, the analyses showed that children of fourth or higher birth order with short-interval births (≤2 years) were at a higher risk of deaths for neonatal, postneonatal, infant and U5 mortalities. How to abbreviate Post Neonatal Mortality Rate? Synonym: The average range of beats per minute recorded within a 10-min time frame. (PDF 688 kb). Basu AM, Stephenson R. Low levels of maternal education and the proximate determinants of childhood mortality: a little learning is not a dangerous thing. Figure 6.1 Neonatal mortality rate, by country, 2000 (map) 14 Figure 6.2 Perinatal mortality rate, by country, 2000 (map) 15 Figure 7.1 Mortality rates by geographical regions, 2000 19 Figure 7.2 Neonatal mortality by region, 1995 and 2000 22 Figure 7.3 Neonatal mortality by subregion, 1995 and 2000 23 By using this website, you agree to our The post-neonatal mortality rate is defined as deaths between 28 and 365 days of age, per 1,000 live births. In comparisons to mothers aged 30–39 years, neonates of mothers aged less than 20 years had a higher risk of death. 2004–2007. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Nigeria: evidence from the 2008 demographic and health survey. However, we adjusted for period and intra-cluster variability, using the appropriate statistical methodology for a complex survey sample [63]. The objective of this study was to explore the trends in and … 2008;371(9620):1276–83. Plausible reasons for this findings may be due to the mother’s young age associated with poor health-seeking behaviour [28], and the mother’s experience in optimal infant feeding [29]. Sustainable Development - knowledge platform: United Nations; 2017 [cited 2017 16 May]. This value is usually expressed as deaths per 100,000 live births. In radiology, the speed with which medical images are recorded, usually expressed in images per second. All mortality rates were expressed in 1000 live births. The finding from the present study may reflect poor accessibility and availability of appropriate health facilities and personnel in crowded living conditions in urban slums in many developing countries [33, 34]. Financing Global Health 2016: development assistance, public and private health spending for the pursuit of universal health coverage. In this test the speed at which erythrocytes settle out of unclotted blood is measured. Figure 6.1 Neonatal mortality rate, by country, 2000 (map) 14 Figure 6.2 Perinatal mortality rate, by country, 2000 (map) 15 Figure 7.1 Mortality rates by geographical regions, 2000 19 Figure 7.2 Neonatal mortality by region, 1995 and 2000 22 Figure 7.3 Neonatal mortality by subregion, 1995 and 2000 23 Figure 7.4 Perinatal mortality by region, 1983, 1995 and 2000 23 … Int J Epidemiol. Also, health system investments, the provision of educational messages about birth spacing, empowerment of women and increasing female education could improve child survival in Tanzania. postneonatal mortality: Public health A standard indicator of health, defined as the number of infant deaths occurring between 28 days and 11 months of life. Health service level factors consisted of birthplace, mode of delivery and type of delivery assistance. (pun intended). Antenatal and perinatal predictors of infant mortality in rural Malawi. Tel: + 1 301 407–6500; Fax: + 1 301 407–6501; email: info@dhsprogram.com. Ogbo FA, Okoro A, Olusanya BO, Olusanya J, Ifegwu IK, Awosemo AO, et al. We excluded 1002 multiple births from the total sample because multiple births have a greater mortality risk from preterm birth and pregnancy complications compared to singletons [18]. UNICEF Data: Monitoring the situation of children and women. PubMed  Risk factors for each of the outcome measures varied in our analyses and are discussed in detail below. 2000–2003. Felix Akpojene Ogbo. The number of cases per year of certain diseases in relation to the size of the population in which they occur. A recent study estimated that under-five mortality rate (U5MR, defined as the probability of dying before the fifth birthday [ 1 ]) had declined globally from 69 deaths in 2000 to 38 deaths per 1000 live births in 2016 – a drop of approximately 45% [ 2 ]. Google Scholar. For example, in 2016, the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania launched the National Multisectoral Nutrition Action Plan with the aim of improving malnutrition – a major source of childhood mortality in Tanzania. Post-neonates born to younger mothers (age < 20 and 20–29 years) reported a significantly higher risk of post-neonatal deaths compared to those born to mothers aged between 30 and 39 years (Table 2). Children under-5 years whose mothers had primary or no education were more likely to die before their fifth birthday compared to those whose mothers had secondary or higher level of education (Table 2). The present study used a total weighted sample of 25,951 singleton live births (2004–2005 = 8394; 2010 = 7939 and 2015–2016 = 9618). Only a few studies explored the determinants of high PNMR in Bangladesh, yet most of them were small-scale or conducted for stillbirths and early neonatal deaths separately. Under-five mortality is still a major health issue in many developing countries like Tanzania. Post-neonatal mortality declined from 3.2/1000 in the 1970s to 1.9/1000 in the 1990s, mainly due to reduced mortality from congenital conditions. July 2016. Determinants of trends in neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child and under-five mortalities in Tanzania from 2004 to 2016. Post Neonatal Mortality Data . 2016;5(10):583. Reduction of neonatal mortality would be important to meet both the neonatal and under-five mortality targets of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Our analyses revealed that neonates born to mothers who resided in rural areas had a lower risk of neonatal death compared to those living in urban areas, which is similar to findings from Tanzanian reports [12, 32]. 2010;4(3):e631. Reg Stud Reg Sci. The neonatal mortality rate (NMR), and causes of deaths in two years, were studied and compared. 4 Perinatal Mortality = number of neonatal deaths + spontaneous fetal deaths of gestation 20+ weeks . J Hum Ecol. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries. Birth rate … For 2017, the neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates (3.85 and 1.94, respectively) were also essentially unchanged from 2016. Post neonatal mortality rate of France fell gradually from 3.48 per 1000 births in 1991 to 1.39 per 1000 births in 2010. Park I, Lee H. Design effects for the weighted mean and total estimators under complex survey sampling. I don't mean amount of alcohol consumed, but alcohol addiction/dependency. Additionally, a population-based study conducted in the pre-MDG period indicated that short birth interval, teenage pregnancy and history of child death increased the risk of infant and child mortalities in Tanzania [12]. after the neonatal period, given as a rate per thousand live births per year. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. J Public Health Africa. It is used as a test of airway obstruction. Ezeh OK, Agho KE, Dibley MJ, Hall JJ, Page AN. Wang H, Bhutta ZA, Coates MM, Coggeshall M, Dandona L, Diallo K, et al. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970–2016: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2016. The DHS project obtained the ethical approvals from the National Health Research Ethical Committee in Tanzania before the surveys were conducted. 2018;46:40. PLoS One. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Filmer D, Pritchett LH. At the start, community-level factors and the outcome variables for each year of the survey were entered into the baseline model. The study indicated that babies who were perceived by the mother to be small or very small in size were more likely to die in their neonatal, post-neonatal, infant or under-5 years’ period compared to those who were perceived to be of average or larger size, consistent with previous studies [14, 20, 56]. Infant mortality and under-five mortality rates have also declined. 2019;14:4. We compared the rate of mortality in twins and sin-gletons using logistic regression to adjust for sex, … Black infants had higher PNMRs than white infants for nearly all combinations of birth weight and gestational age. However, the change in neonatal mortality is not as significant as the change in children aged 1–59 months (63%). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. Similarly, the full implementation of the SDG-3 agenda will also require locally-relevant data to guide efforts and/or refinement of programmes to high-priority groups. La tasa de mortalidad postneonatal (entre un mes y 11 meses de edad) es 9,2%. Global, regional, national, and selected subnational levels of stillbirths, neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2015. However, the ix. Mortality rate. McGill D, Perales N, Dutta A. Prognosis for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health in Tanzania. 2013;17(3):30–43. The rate at which an individual, tissue, or organ grows over time. The number of stillbirths (in which the gestation period was 28 weeks or more) in the first 7 days of life divided by the number of live births plus stillbirths in the same year. Mosley WH, Chen LC. For sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of U5M has been uneven, with Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo and Ethiopia accounting for over 60% of U5M in the region [2]. after the neonatal period, given as a rate per thousand live births per year. Results In 1st period, the neonatal death rate in … For further improvement in U5M, nationally representative household studies that focused on trends and determinants of deaths for children younger than 5 years are needed for effective prioritising of scarce maternal and child health resources in Tanzania [10]. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). 3 Post Neonatal Death Rate - deaths at age 28 days and older but less than 1 year per 1,000 live births . Normally it is less than 10 mm/hr in men and slightly higher in women. Infant mortality is defined as death during the first year of life, and 66 percent of those deaths, for all races, occur in the neonatal period in … Why are babies dying in the first month after birth? Each level factor was entered into the model one at a time to assess their relationship with the study outcomes. The analysis revealed that male neonates were more likely to die compared to their female counterparts, and neonates delivered by caesarean section had a higher likelihood of death compared to those who were delivered by vaginal delivery. Previous studies have indicated that possible biological and behavioural vulnerabilities may be responsible for this finding, where male neonates and infants were more likely to die compared to females [50, 51]. The surveys were conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Inner City Fund (ICF) International, Maryland, USA. The achievement of key SDGs (Goal 1 – end poverty; Goal 4 – ensure quality education and Goal 5 – empower women and girls) will improve health outcomes and socioeconomic positions of Tanzanian women, with positive impact of child survival. 2016;388(10053):1725–74. et al. 2000;82(3):F200–F4. 1997;349(9064):1498–504. Article  In Tanzania, between 1999 and 2015, infant mortality rate (IMR, defined as the probability of dying before the 1st birthday [1]) had declined by approximately 57% and U5MR fell by 54% [6], with a recent estimate ranging between 48 [6] and 60 [7] per 1000 live births. 1984;10:25–45. Links to your sources would be appreciated. It increases, for example, in hyperthyroidism. Wang H, Abajobir AA, Abate KH, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abd-Allah F, et al. Additionally, no maternal education or primary education and poor household wealth were risk factors for child and under-five mortalities. Despite this progress, differences in U5MR between low-income and high-income countries remain huge (76 deaths and 7 deaths per 1000 live births in low-income and high-income countries, respectively) [2]. As before, those variables that satisfied the 5% significance level were retained (stage 3 model). Model for infant mortality. Post-neonatal mortality declined from 3.2/1000 in the 1970s to 1.9/1000 in the 1990s, mainly due to reduced mortality from congenital conditions. Historic example of death rates (per 100,000) for leading causes of death for men aged 25–44 years. FAO conceptualized the study, interpreted the results, drafted the original manuscript, critically revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Ogbo, F.A., Ezeh, O.K., Awosemo, A.O. First, we used pooled cross-sectional data across time, where study populations may not be similar. The study found that neonates and infants from younger mothers (< 20 years) had a higher risk of death compared to those from older mothers (30–39 years), consistent with evidence from Nigeria [14, 20] and Bangladesh, [27] which indicated that the risk of neonatal, postneonatal and infant mortalities were higher among younger mothers compared to older mothers. 2017;390(10108):2171–82. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/postneonatal+mortality+rate. Approval to use these data was sought from Measure DHS/ICF International, and permission was granted for this use. 2001;38(1):115–32. Similarly, the distribution of inequitable health services and poor referral systems have also been flagged as significant impediments to timely, safe and quality caesarean section deliveries for Tanzanian mothers with resultant poor health outcomes for their infants [47, 48]. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. Label. Mengistu TA, Tafere TE. The post neonatal rate is the number of deaths occurring after 28 days of age and before one year, i.e. I was wondering the rate at which alcohol induces brain damage; I know that over some years, damage occurs, but does anything happen after a month of drinking on weekends? Rutstein S, Rojas G. Guide to demographic and health survey (DHS). Risk factors and a predictive model for under-five mortality in Nigeria: evidence from Nigeria demographic and health survey. • Infant mortality rate: 4.0 per 1000 live births, the lowest ever recorded. What is the rate of alcoholism in the USA compared to the rest of the world? Our study suggests that male neonates, infants and U5 children had a higher risk of death compared to their female counterparts, in line with findings from Nigeria which revealed that male infants and under-five children had a higher risk of death [14]. Infant respiratory distress syndrome, in turn, is the leading cause of death in preterm infants, affecting about 1% of newborn infants. Similarly, a possible mechanism for birth order as a risk factor for U5M may be attributable to internal competition for food and other limited household resources, as well as increased demand on the mother [52]. Post-neonatal deaths. Google Scholar. IMR is a composite indicator of neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and post-neonatal mortality rate, while U5MR is a composite measure of IMR and child mortality rate (CMR). Disclosing doubtful indications for emergency cesarean sections in rural hospitals in Tanzania: a retrospective criterion-based audit. Masanja H, de Savigny D, Smithson P, Schellenberg J, John T, Mbuya C, et al. The post neonatal rate is the number of deaths occurring after 28 days of age and before one year, i.e. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2000;321(7276):1609. The analysis was based on the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data sets for the years 2004–2005, 2010 and 2015–2016, with some restriction imposed by the DHS program. 2009;26(1):31–9. The description is composed by our digital … Google Scholar. 2013;13(1):107. Energy used is calculated from the amount of oxygen used during the test. CAS  Dibley MJ, Titaley CR, d’Este C, Agho K. Iron and folic acid supplements in pregnancy improve child survival in Indonesia. Article  The study dependent variables were age-sepcific mortality rates which included neonatal mortality (defined as the probability of dying within the 1st month of life); post-neonatal mortality (defined as the difference between infant and neonatal mortality), infant mortality (measured as the probability of dying before the 1st birthday), child mortality (assessed as the probability of dying between the 1st and 5th birthdays) and total under-5 mortality (defined as the probability of dying before the fifth birthday) [1]. Infant and child mortality Online: DHS; 2019 [cited 2019 April 11]. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data—or tears: An application to educational enrollments in states of India. Sørbye IK, Vangen S, Oneko O, Sundby J, Bergsjø P. Caesarean section among referred and self-referred birthing women: a cohort study from a tertiary hospital, northeastern Tanzania. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):10. Naghavi M, Abajobir AA, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abd-Allah F, Abera SF, et al. 2012;3(2):18. NMR is further divided into early neonatal deaths and late neonatal deaths. We estimated time to event (death) in days within the specified age range and time period based on varied information on age at death recorded by TDHS, for consistency across all the study outcomes [25]. Additional information on the survey methodology (such as sampling procedure and questionnaire details) has been described elsewhere [6]. Results of the full analytical strategy for each of the study outcomes are presented in Additional file 1 (Table S1–S5). We calculated age-specific mortality rates, followed by an assessment of trends and determinants (community, socioeconomic, individual and health service) of neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-five mortalities in Cox regression models. In the post-MDG period, the global community has agreed on a new set of targets, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with SDG-3.2 aiming to reduce under-five mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1000 live births by the year 2030 [5]. Diarrhoea and suboptimal feeding practices in Nigeria: evidence from the national household surveys. Infants born to younger mothers (< 20 and 20–29 years) were more likely to die before their one-year birthday compared to those born to mothers aged 30–39 years (Table 2). Reprod Health. 2010;5(6):e11190. Facility- and community-based interventions to promote family planning would be needed to improve child survival in Tanzania. 2002;7(6):506–11. Trends and determinants of complementary feeding practices in Tanzania, 2004–2016. Stat Med. This progress has been attributed to strong political will, improved health care systems and programmes, and improvements in income per capital [8, 9]. Reasons for the increased risk of neonatal and infant deaths associated with caesarean delivery in Tanzania include sub-optimal management of caesarean section deliveries, and a lack of awareness and inappropriate use of evidence-based guidelines [42,43,44,45,46]. AOA, IKI, LT, EJ and DC interpreted results and critically revised the manuscript for intellectual content, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. During the same period, the neonatal rate decreased 85%, from 28.8 to 4.5 deaths per 1,000 live births, and the postneonatal rate decreased 88%, from 18.3 to 2.2 deaths per 1,000 live births. 2005;24(5):709–28. PubMed Central  Lancet. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate (IMR), which is the probability of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births. The perinatal mortality rate is calculated as: (# of perinatal deaths / total # of births (still births + live births)) x 1000. Cookies policy. 2 Africa contributed to one third of the world’s neonatal mortality burden. Moss W, Darmstadt GL, Marsh DR, Black RE, Santosham M. Research priorities for the reduction of perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing country communities. This rate declined dramatically following the introduction in 1990 of the educational campaign aimed at reducing the prevalence of risk … Model for post-neonatal mortality. 2017;390(10091):231–66. This approach permits more distal factors to be appropriately assessed without interference from individual and healthcare service level factors. Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol. The data can be displayed at the county level, and includes stabilization of rates to better evaluate trends. 2013;10(1):S2. In past the two decades, the Government of Tanzania has made significant improvement in providing healthcare access to mothers in rural areas and this may have played a role in our findings in reducing neonatal mortality [10]. related. mortality rate (NMR) and post-neonatal mortality rate, while U5MR is a composite measure of IMR and child mortality rate (CMR). This finding was in line with previous studies which suggested that birth interval and birth order were risk factors for neonatal, postneonatal, infant and U5 mortalities [14, 20, 52]. 3 Post Neonatal Death Rate - deaths at age 28 days and older but less than 1 year per … The SDGs have two specific targets to reduce the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-five mortality rate (U5MR) to 12 and 25 per thousand live-births within 2030, respectively [ 3 ]. Kraemer S. The fragile male. Ogbo FA, Ogeleka P, Awosemo AO. The ratio is sometimes approximated as the difference between the … A perinatal death is a fetal death (stillbirth) or an early neonatal death. In the United States, the infant mortality rate decreased 86%, from 47.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 1940 to 6.7 in 2006. Multiple gestation: reflections on epidemiology, causes, and consequences. The number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually expressed or written as number per minute. Most importantly, improving antenatal care attendance [35], skilled delivery care [36, 37] and postnatal care [35] would potentially have substantial positive impacts on neonatal mortality and U5M in Tanzania. We used the ‘svy’ command to adjust for cluster variations and weights in analyses and ‘tobit’ and ‘truncreg’ commands to determine the number of censoring and truncation in Stata software version 13.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, Texas, USA). Given the high mortality rate in the south-central Asia subregion, over 40% of global neonatal deaths took place there. We also found that poor or middle household wealth and primary and no educational achievement were associated with child mortality compared to rich households and secondary or higher educational attainment, respectively. A death of an infant within the specified periods was coded as ‘1’ and no death coded as ‘0’. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7547-x, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7547-x. With 5.7 deaths per 1,000 live births, the United States has a high infant mortality rate, and Black babies are in the gravest danger, with an infant mortality rate in … Morbidity and mortality measures are often the same mathematically; it’s just a matter of what you choose to measure, illness or death. New York: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2004. For each of the significant variables in the final model, the HRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the magnitude of effect of factors associated with the various outcomes. Most importantly, there was huge heterogeneity in absolute levels of U5M and neonatal mortality during the MDG era in Africa [4]. We compared the rate of mortality in twins and singletons using logistic regression to adjust for sex, ethnicity, season of birth, maternal age, birth order, SES index, access to clean water and birth interval (Model 2). See: The average airflow during the middle half of a forced vital capacity effort. 4 Perinatal Mortality = number of neonatal deaths + spontaneous fetal deaths of gestation 20+ weeks . Mahabir R, Crooks A, Croitoru A, Agouris P. The study of slums as social and physical constructs: challenges and emerging research opportunities. 2006;38(4):537–51. Over the study period (2004–2016), we found that NMR has remained relatively constant, while PMR and CMR have halved in Tanzania. PubMed  Perinatal mortality (PNM) refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate. 1 ways to abbreviate Post Neonatal Mortality Rate. 1999;19(1):33–43. The infant mortality rate is equivalent to the sum of the neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates. The number of fetal deaths per 1000 live births, usually per year. Int J Equity Health. The study goal was to evaluate maternal and neonatal risk factors associated with post-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge mortality among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Post-neonatal deaths. The post-neonatal mortality rate (between 1 and 11 months of age) is 9.2 per cent. Article  BMJ. The percentage of individuals afflicted with an illness who die as a result of it. Dar Es Salaam: Prime Minister's Office; 2016. 1996–1999. Ministry of Health Community Development Gender Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC) [Tanzania Mainland], Ministry of Health (MoH) [Zanzibar], National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Office of the Chief Government Statistician (OCGS), ICF. This study examined the contribution of twins to neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in The Gambia, and evaluated factors that contribute to the excess mortality among twins. The speed at which the cells settle depends on how many red blood cells clump together. Dar es Salaam and Rockville: NBS and ICF International; 2016. PubMed  2006;51(4):381. Cite this article. 2016;2(1):6. Welaga P, Moyer CA, Aborigo R, Adongo P, Williams J, Hodgson A, et al. 2017;390(10100):1151–210. Intervention strategies such as increasing health service contacts for mothers are likely to improve neonatal outcomes.

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