After the fall of the Roman Empire, many of the classical Greek texts were translated into Arabic and preserved in the medieval Islamic world. So were the stethoscope, the electrocardiograph, and the endoscope. The Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the 18th Century brought increased leisure time, leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased accessibility. »Its Definition and Meaning [2019], What is Procrastination or Procasting? The history of American football can be traced to early versions of rugby football and association football. Departing from media offered in bundled content packages (magazines, CDs, television and radio slots), the Internet has primarily offered unbundled content items (articles, audio and video files).[158]. It applies to countries whose history is strongly marked by Western European immigration or settlement, and is not restricted to Western Europe. New York, Messner (1955), harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLandes1969 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHunter1985 (, Charles Murray, Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. The process was accompanied and reinforced by the Age of Discovery and continued into the modern period. [164] In particular, over half of the populations of the Czech Republic (79% of the population was agnostic, atheist or irreligious), the United Kingdom (~25%), Germany (25–33%),[165] France (30–35%)[166][167][168] and the Netherlands (39–44%) are agnostic or atheist. Much of this set of traditions is collected in the Western canon. [101] In art, the Celtic knot is a very distinctive Western repeated motif. Many games are known as "football" were being played at colleges and universities in the United States in the first half of the 19th century. Western culture is most strongly influenced by the Greco-Roman and Christian cultures.[1]. [citation needed], The world's most widely adopted system of measurement, the International System of Units, derived from the metric system, was first developed in France and evolved through contributions from various Westerners. The Age of Discovery faded into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, during which cultural and intellectual forces in European society emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority. Basketball was invented in 1891 by James Naismith, a Canadian physical education instructor working in Springfield, Massachusetts in the United States. Following the Roman conquest of the Hellenistic world, the concept of a "West" arose, as there was a cultural divide between the Greek East and Latin West. Greek and Roman theatre are considered the antecedents of modern theatre, and forms such as medieval theatre, passion plays, morality plays, and commedia dell'arte are considered highly influential. Musical theatre was developed in the West in the 19th and 20th Centuries, from music hall, comic opera, and Vaudeville; with significant contributions from the Jewish diaspora, African-Americans, and other marginalized peoples.[103][104][105]. [citation needed], The transistor, integrated circuit, memory chip, and computer were all first seen in the West. The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of Western culture were those of Mesopotamia; the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran: the cradle of civilization. Comple ... the Western culture and European mode of civilization began to thrive and outgrow African cultural heritage. The ballet is a distinctively Western form of performance dance. Western civilization, western culture or the West is made up of European culturally derived societies (most notably in the Classical Roman heritage,Western Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism), Democracy and Liberalism).This at least includes Western and Central Europe, English speaking North America, Australia and New Zealand.The identities of places such as … Norms, values and political systems originating in Europe, Scientific and technological inventions and discoveries, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Western culture explanation. [44][45] Ancient Egypt similarly had a strong influence on Western culture. [34] Francisco de Vitoria, a disciple of Thomas Aquinas and a Catholic thinker who studied the issue regarding the human rights of colonized natives, is recognized by the United Nations as a father of international law, and now also by historians of economics and democracy as a leading light for the West's democracy and rapid economic development. [113] The percentage of ethnically European Nobel prize winners during the first and second halves of the 20th century were respectively 98 and 94 percent. There is some disagreement about what nations should or should not be included in the category and at what times. [34] The globalization by successive European colonial empires spread European ways of life and European educational methods around the world between the 16th and 20th centuries. During the Great Divergence, a term coined by Samuel Huntington[69] the Western world overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization of the time, eclipsing Qing China, Mughal India, Tokugawa Japan, and the Ottoman Empire. The eradication of smallpox, was led by a Westerner, Donald Henderson. What is thought of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the Enlightenment, as well as Christian culture. [48][49] Nevertheless, the Celts in the West created some significant literature in the ancient world whenever they were given the opportunity (an example being the poet Caecilius Statius), and they developed a large amount of scientific knowledge themselves (as seen in their Coligny Calendar). Its widely used language is English. The Romans built immense structures such as the amphitheatres to house their festivals of sport. [26] Medieval Christianity is credited with creating the modern university,[27][28] the modern hospital system,[29] scientific economics,[30][31] and natural law (which would later influence the creation of international law). However, per another survey by Pew Research Center from 2011, Christianity remains the dominant religion in the Western world where 70–84% are Christians,[96] According to this survey, 76% of Europeans described themselves as Christians,[96][169][170] and about 86% of the Americas population identified themselves as Christians,[171] (90% in Latin America and 77% in North America). In a broader sense, the Middle Ages, with its fertile encounter between Greek philosophical reasoning and Levantine monotheism was not confined to the West but also stretched into the old East. The Baroque style, which encompassed music, art, and architecture, was particularly encouraged by the post-Reformation Catholic Church as such forms offered a means of religious expression that was stirring and emotional, intended to stimulate religious fervor.[99]. The Greek classics along with Arabic science, philosophy and technology were transmitted to Western Europe and translated into Latin, sparking the Renaissance of the 12th century and 13th century. The West invented cinema, television, the personal computer and the Internet; produced artists such as Michelangelo, Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Bach, and Mozart; developed sports such as soccer, cricket, golf, tennis, rugby, basketball, and volleyball; and transported humans to an astronomical object for the first time with the 1969 Apollo 11 Moon Landing. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. The atom, nucleus, electron, neutron and proton were all unveiled by Westerners. For example, Western culture includes countries in Northern America, such as Canada and the United States, or Australasia, such as Australia and New Zealand, whose language and demographic ethnicity majorities are of European descent without indigenous influence. This organic unity of Western culture is so strong that even the modern developments of extreme nationalism have been incapable of creating any real cultural and spiritual autarky. [b] The term Middle East in the mid-19th century included the territory east of the Ottoman Empire, but West of China—Greater Persia and Greater India—is now used synonymously with "Near East" in most languages. [102] The ballroom dance is an important Western variety of dance for the elite. Western culture is characterized by a host of artistic, philosophic, literary and legal themes and traditions. [112], By the will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel the Nobel Prize were established in 1895. [46] Greeks felt they were the most civilized and saw themselves (in the formulation of Aristotle) as something between the advanced civilizations of the Near East (who they viewed as soft and slavish) and the wild barbarians of most of Europe to the west. It has been disputed by some philosophers whether Western culture can be considered a historically sound, unified body of thought. The set of characteristics that are considered distinctive of Western culture are the following: Based on the inheritance it received, the Western culture re-elaborated the system of social, cultural and political ordering towards the forms that we know today, of which contradictions are also part.Yes, this gives new form to: The concept of Western culture is very controversial as a result of the models of political domination exercised by Western Europe in the world since the century XVI. For example, in Judaism and Christianity, God is the ultimate authority, while Greco-Roman tradition considers the ultimate authority to be reason. The novel, which made its appearance in the 18th century, is an essentially European creation. The Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary, 1764) and Letters on the English (1733) written by Voltaire spread the ideals of the Enlightenment. [26] Thus, the culture identified with East and West itself interchanges with time and place (from the ancient world to the modern). Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. [citation needed] European culture developed with a complex range of philosophy, medieval scholasticism, mysticism and Christian and secular humanism. [97] Some cultural and artistic modalities are characteristically Western in origin and form. Mainly based on Christianity, one sees oneself as an element of the divine and life in service of … The West as a geographical area is unclear and undefined. These states also experienced major transformations in the form of the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution that defined their economic and cultural … However, this would become the centre of a new West. The concept of Western culture is generally linked to the classical definition of Western world. As religion became less important, and Europeans came into increasing contact with far away peoples, the old concept of Western culture began a slow evolution towards what it is today. A modern ubiquitous architectural form that emphasizes this characteristic is the skyscraper, their modern equivalent first developed in New York and Chicago. A number of popular modern sports were devised or codified in Britain during the 19th Century and obtained global prominence—these include ping pong, modern tennis, association football, netball and rugby. The cultural distance between the West and Islam is narrower than Westerners think. The expansion of Greek culture into the Hellenistic world of the eastern Mediterranean led to a synthesis between Greek and Near-Eastern cultures,[2] and major advances in literature, engineering, and science, and provided the culture for the expansion of early Christianity and the Greek New Testament. Of course, extended prose fiction had existed much earlier; both novels of adventure and romance in the Hellenistic world and in Heian Japan. In the Roman world, one could speak of three main directions: North (Celtic tribal states and Parthians), the East (lux ex oriente), and finally the South (Quid novi ex Africa? [58] The learning of Classical Antiquity was better preserved in the Byzantine Eastern Roman Empire. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Indeed, if they go beyond a certain point in this direction they prove fatal to the existence of the national culture itself, as the catastrophic development of national socialism in Germany has … It is difficult to determine which individuals fit into which category and the East–West contrast is sometimes criticized as relativistic and arbitrary. [114] A study by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) – Japan's equivalent of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) – concluded that 54% of the world's most important inventions were British. In that sense, it has been denounced that one of The characteristics of Western culture is its ethnocentric character, a paradigm that they specifically call eurocentrism. However, in the past it was also the Eastern Roman Empire that had many fe… The universe of values, customs, practices, traditions, religious beliefs, economic system and political-social organization representative of Western Europe and Europe is known as Western culture from the west , either because they originated there, or because they were assumed as their own. Westernization, the adoption of the practices and culture of western Europe by societies and countries in other parts of the world, whether through compulsion or influence. Citizens of Muslim countries may be more vulnerable to their … [1], As in other areas, the Jewish diaspora and Judaism exist in the Western world. This included the emergence of modern science, during which developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature. In Western dance, music, plays and other arts, the performers are only very infrequently masked. ‘Though Western in origin, it is not a Western good but a human good.’ ‘It is a nice change of pace from what have normally seen from Western Europeans during the last year and a half.’ ‘Every Western democracy is signed up to the 1951 United Nations convention on refugees.’ Roman culture also mixed with Celtic, Germanic, and Slavic cultures, which slowly became integrated into Western culture: starting mainly with their acceptance of Christianity. Meaning of Civic Values ​​(What are they, Concept and Definition), Definition of environmental hygiene - What it is, Meaning and Concept, What is Synoptic Table? It traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice and is often linked to Rome, where many human-versus-animal events were held. ), Dublin:Four Courts Press, Burnett, Charles. [88] Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals, plants[89] and fire. Alexander's conquests led to the emergence of a Hellenistic civilization, representing a synthesis of Greek and Near-Eastern cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean region. At the same time, then as the printing press in the physical technological sense was invented, 'the press' in the extended sense of the word also entered the historical stage. "The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century,". The term also applies beyond Europe to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe by immigration, colonization, or influence. The study of canon law, the legal system of the Catholic Church, fused with that of Roman law to form the basis of the refounding of Western legal scholarship. [32] Christianity played a role in ending practices common among pagan societies, such as human sacrifice, slavery,[33] infanticide and polygamy. Iron and steel ships, bridges and skyscrapers first appeared in the West. The ship's chronometer, the screw propeller, the locomotive, bicycle, automobile, and airplane were all invented in the West. See more. However, in the past it was also the Eastern Roman Empire that had many features now seen as "Western," preserving Roman law, which was first codified by Justinian in the east,[38] as well as the traditions of scholarship around Plato, Aristotle, and Euclid that were later introduced to Italy during the Renaissance by Greek scholars fleeing the fall of Constantinople. [124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131] The pencil, ballpoint pen, Cathode ray tube, liquid-crystal display, light-emitting diode, camera, photocopier, laser printer, ink jet printer, plasma display screen and world wide web were also invented in the West. There are essentially no taboos against depicting a god, or other religious figures, in a representational fashion. The double-blind study and evidence-based medicine are critical scientific techniques widely used in the West for medical purposes. [1] These cultures had a number of similarities, such as a common emphasis on the individual, but they also embody fundamentally conflicting worldviews. [43] Thus the Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895 occurred in the Far East while the troubles surrounding the decline of the Ottoman Empire simultaneously occurred in the Near East. The concept of Western culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world. The Medieval West referred specifically to the Catholic "Latin" West, also called "Frankish" during Charlemagne's reign, in contrast to the Orthodox East, where Greek remained the language of the Byzantine Empire. 08. Throughout the Western world there are increasing numbers of people who seek to revive the indigenous religions of their European ancestors; such groups include Germanic, Roman, Hellenic, Celtic, Slavic, and polytheistic reconstructionist movements. In physics, the science of mechanics and quantum mechanics, relativity, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics were all developed by Westerners. The Parthenon under restoration in 2008, the most iconic Classical building, built from 447 BC to 432 BC, located in Athens, Stained glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, completed in 1248, mostly constructed between 1194 and 1220, Saint Basil's Cathedral, built from 1555 to 1561, in the Red Square of Moscow, with its extraordinary onion-shaped domes, painted in bright colors, The Palais Garnier in Paris, built between 1861 and 1875, a Beaux-Arts masterpiece, A notable feature of Western culture is its strong emphasis and focus on innovation and invention through science and technology, and its ability to generate new processes, materials and material artifacts with its roots dating back to the Ancient Greeks. The philosophy and science of Classical Greece were largely forgotten in Europe after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, other than in isolated monastic enclaves (notably in Ireland, which had become Christian but was never conquered by Rome). Western culture has developed many themes and traditions, the most significant of which are:[citation needed]. Religion has waned in Europe, where people who are agnostic or atheist make up about 18% of the European population today. [93][94], In the 20th century, Christianity declined in influence in many Western countries, mostly in the European Union where some member states have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years,[95] and also elsewhere. Western religions believe in the superiority of human beings over other animals and here too people can become better if they control their sinful actions and thoughts a: steeped in or stemming from the Greco-Roman traditions Western culture b : of or relating to the noncommunist countries of Europe and America Western powers [174] Non-believers/Agnostics account for 16%,[173] atheists account for 7%,[173] and Muslims account for 2%.[173]. Becoming USDA licensed in 2018. But people i… Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a Frenchman, instigated the modern revival of the Olympic movement. Muslim societies are more humane than portrayed in the West, while Western societies often fail to live up to their liberal mythology. The Latin-speaking Western Roman Empire consisted of Western Europe and Northwest Africa, while the Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire (later the Byzantine Empire) consisted of the Balkans, Asia Minor, Egypt and Levant. Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis Roman civil law code was created in the East in his capital of Constantinople,[38] and that city maintained trade and intermittent political control over outposts such as Venice in the West for centuries. Later, ideas of the West were formed by the concepts of Latin Christendom and the Holy Roman Empire. After the fall of Rome, much of Greco-Roman art, literature, science and even technology were all but lost in the western part of the old empire. behaviouristic definition of c ulture is, therefore inadequate. The West as a geographical area is unclear and undefined. The most striking part of a culture is different dance forms that the culture holds. English migrants took antecedents of baseball to America during the colonial period. [61][63] Movements in art and philosophy, such as the Humanist movement of the Renaissance and the Scholastic movement of the High Middle Ages, were motivated by a drive to connect Catholicism with Greek and Arab thought imported by Christian pilgrims. By extension, those countries where Western Europe established its hegemony and inherited its languages, socio-political system of organization, religion are considered part of Western culture or Westernized countries , law system, educational model, values ​​and customs. “It is the catchword of every politician, the secular gospel of our economic, ‘free enterprise’ system, and the foundation of all our cultural activities.” Most of the elements were discovered and named in the West, as well as the contemporary atomic theories to explain them. The cultural definition of the Western world. The most important Hellenistic centre of learning was Ptolemaic Egypt, which attracted Greek, Egyptian, Jewish, Persian, Phoenician and even Indian scholars. [83][84][85][86] GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy,[87] while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. The first expedition to circumnavigate the Earth (1522) was by Westerners, as well as the first journey to the South Pole (1911), and the first Moon landing (1969). The influence of cinema and radio remained, while televisions became near essentials in every home. [156], After the launch of the satellite Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union in 1957, satellite transmission technology was dramatically realised, with the United States launching Telstar in 1962 linking live media broadcasts from the UK to the US. All these notions are now under revision and discussion, especially since the processes began of decolonization of the world. Sailen Debnath, 2010, "Secularism: Western and Indian," New Delhi, India:Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, Gordon, Cyrus H., The Common Background of the Greek and Hebrew Civilizations, W. W. Norton and Company, New York 1965, "How The Irish Saved Civilisation", by Thomas Cahill, 1995, Sootin, Harry. Indeed, western culture is a societal matter that only affects the living conditions of the people in the region. The sport of bullfighting is a traditional spectacle of Spain, Portugal, southern France, and some Latin American countries. Life in a western country is pretty easy as they have number of resources and facilitates. The emergence of news media in the 17th century has to be seen in close connection with the spread of the printing press, from which the publishing press derives its name. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, political, artistic, and philosophical principles that set it apart from other civilizations. This led directly to the emergence and development of European classical music and its many derivatives. [19][20][21][22] A cornerstone of Western thought, beginning in ancient Greece and continuing through the Middle Ages and Renaissance, is the idea of rationalism in various spheres of life developed by Hellenistic philosophy, scholasticism and humanism. Jose Orlandis, 1993, "A Short History of the Catholic Church," 2nd edn. From the late 15th century to the 17th century, Western culture began to spread to other parts of the world through explorers and missionaries during the Age of Discovery, and by imperialists from the 17th century to the early 20th century. Western classical is built on the same notes i.e Do Ra Me Fa So La Ti. American football resulted from several major divergences from rugby, most notably the rule changes instituted by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football". Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (Chapters 9, 10, 11, 13, 25 and 26) and three times (Chapters 4, 8 and 19) in its sequel, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, accessed 8 December 2014. p. 1: "Western civilization owes far more to Catholic Church than most people—Catholic included—often realize. Western culture - the modern culture of western Europe and North America; "when Ghandi was asked what he thought of Western civilization he said he thought it would be a good idea" The first digital broadcast satellite (DBS) system began transmitting in US in 1975. Much of the basis of the post-Roman cultural world had been set before the fall of the Empire, mainly through the integration and reshaping of Roman ideas through Christian thought. The polka, the square dance, the flamenco, and the Irish step dance are very well known Western forms of folk dance. [citation needed], In mathematics, calculus, statistics, logic, vectors, tensors and complex analysis, group theory and topology were developed by Westerners.

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